Overview of research to date
Wie lange dauert es? Rosa virginiana -carolina - Wiesen- od. Calculations suggest that this extinction decreased methane production by about 9. Attic white-ground red-figured kylix of Aphrodite riding a swan c. Fragmente einer Kategorialtypologie des einfachen Satzes in den ostkaukasischen Sprachen , 2 volumes, München:
Aug 29– Sep 2, 2019, Atlanta, GA
On Cyprus, Aphrodite was sometimes called Eleemon "the merciful". A male version of Aphrodite known as Aphroditus was worshipped in the city of Amathus on Cyprus. Aphrodite's main festival, the Aphrodisia , was celebrated across Greece, but particularly in Athens and Corinth. In Athens, the Aphrodisia was celebrated on the fourth day of the month of Hekatombaion in honor of Aphrodite's role in the unification of Attica.
Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite was worshipped as Aphrodite Areia , which means "warlike". Aphrodite was the patron goddess of prostitutes of all varieties,   ranging from pornai cheap street prostitutes typically owned as slaves by wealthy pimps to hetairai expensive, well-educated hired companions, who were usually self-employed and sometimes provided sex to their customers.
Scholars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries believed that the cult of Aphrodite may have involved ritual prostitution ,   an assumption based on ambiguous passages in certain ancient texts, particularly a fragment of a skolion by the Boeotian poet Pindar ,  which mentions prostitutes in Corinth in association with Aphrodite.
The ancient Romans identified Aphrodite with their goddess Venus ,  who was originally a goddess of agricultural fertility, vegetation, and springtime. This syncretism greatly impacted Greek worship of Aphrodite. Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos , on the island of Cyprus , which is why she is sometimes called "Cyprian", especially in the poetic works of Sappho.
However, other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera , hence another of her names, "Cytherea". According to the version of her birth recounted by Hesiod in his Theogony ,   Cronus severed Uranus' genitals and threw them behind him into the sea.
In the Iliad ,  Aphrodite is described as the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Aphrodite is consistently portrayed as a nubile, infinitely desirable adult, having had no childhood.
In Book Eight of the Odyssey ,  however, the blind singer Demodocus describes Aphrodite as the wife of Hephaestus  and tells how she committed adultery with Ares during the Trojan War. Later stories were invented to explain Aphrodite's marriage to Hephaestus. In the most famous story, Zeus hastily married Aphrodite to Hephaestus in order to prevent the other gods from fighting over her.
Aphrodite is almost always accompanied by Eros , the god of lust and sexual desire. The fertility god Priapus was usually considered to be Aphrodite's son by Dionysus ,   but he was sometimes also described as her son by Hermes, Adonis, or even Zeus. The First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite Hymn 5 , which was probably composed sometime in the mid-seventh century BC,  describes how Zeus once became annoyed with Aphrodite for causing deities to fall in love with mortals,  so he caused her to fall in love with Anchises , a handsome mortal shepherd who lived in the foothills beneath Mount Ida near the city of Troy.
Aphrodite, however, lies and tells him that she is not a goddess,  but the daughter of one of the noble families of Phrygia. After the lovemaking is complete, Aphrodite reveals her true divine form. The myth of Aphrodite and Adonis is probably derived from the ancient Sumerian legend of Inanna and Dumuzid.
Aphrodite found the baby,  and took him to the underworld to be fostered by Persephone. In different versions of the story, the boar was either sent by Ares, who was jealous that Aphrodite was spending so much time with Adonis,  or by Artemis, who wanted revenge against Aphrodite for having killed her devoted follower Hippolytus.
The myth of Adonis is associated with the festival of the Adonia , which was celebrated by Greek women every year in midsummer. In Hesiod's Works and Days , Zeus orders Aphrodite to make Pandora , the first woman, physically beautiful and sexually attractive,  so that she may become "an evil men will love to embrace".
According to one myth, Aphrodite aided Hippomenes ,   a noble youth who wished to marry Atalanta , a maiden who was renowned throughout the land for her beauty,   but who refused to marry any man unless he could outrun her in a footrace. The myth of Pygmalion is first mentioned by the third-century BC Greek writer Philostephanus of Cyrene ,   but is first recounted in detail in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Aphrodite generously rewarded those who honored her, but also punished those who disrespected her, often quite brutally. In Euripides 's tragedy Hippolytus , which was first performed at the City Dionysia in BC, Theseus's son Hippolytus worships only Artemis , the goddess of virginity, and refuses to engage in any form of sexual contact.
Glaucus of Corinth angered Aphrodite by refusing to let his horses for chariot racing mate, since doing so would hinder their speed. Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have children by a bear.
The resulting offspring, Agrius and Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of Zeus. Ultimately, he transformed all the members of the family into birds of ill omen.
The myth of the Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the Iliad ,  but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria , a lost poem of the Epic Cycle ,  which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis the eventual parents of Achilles.
The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes. Aphrodite plays an important and active role throughout the entirety of Homer's Iliad. Aphrodite's most prominent avian symbol was the dove,  which was originally an important symbol of her Near Eastern precursor Inanna-Ishtar.
Because of her connections to the sea, Aphrodite was associated with a number of different types of water fowl ,  including swans, geese, and ducks. A scene of Aphrodite rising from the sea appears on the back of the Ludovisi Throne c. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, statues depicting Aphrodite proliferated;  many of these statues were modeled at least to some extent on Praxiteles's Aphrodite of Knidos.
The Ludovisi Throne possibly c. Attic white-ground red-figured kylix of Aphrodite riding a swan c. Aphrodite and Himeros , detail from a silver kantharos c. Red-figure vase painting of Aphrodite and Phaon c. Apuleian vase painting of Zeus plotting with Aphrodite to seduce Leda while Eros sits on her arm c. Aphrodite Kallipygos "Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks".
Aphrodite Heyl second century BC. Greek sculpture group of Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan c. Aphrodite of Milos c. Aphrodite of Menophantos first century BC. The Ludovisi Aphrodite of Knidos. The Lely Venus c. Early Christians frequently adapted pagan iconography to suit Christian purposes. Aphrodite is the central figure in Sandro Botticelli 's painting Primavera , which has been described as "one of the most written about, and most controversial paintings in the world",  and "one of the most popular paintings in Western art".
Primavera late s or early s by Sandro Botticelli. Venus of Urbino c. Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time c. Venus and Adonis by Titian. Venus with a Mirror c. Venus, Adonis and Cupid c. The Toilet of Venus c. The Death of Adonis c. Jacques-Louis David 's final work was his magnum opus , Mars Being Disarmed by Venus ,  which combines elements of classical, Renaissance, traditional French art, and contemporary artistic styles.
I will put the date of my seventy-five years on it and afterwards I will never again pick up my brush. Paintings of Venus were favorites of the late nineteenth-century Academic artists in France.
Atkinson praised it, declaring that "Mr Leighton, instead of adopting corrupt Roman notions regarding Venus such as Rubens embodied, has wisely reverted to the Greek idea of Aphrodite, a goddess worshipped, and by artists painted, as the perfection of female grace and beauty.
Venus and Adonis by François Lemoyne. Venus Disrobing for the Bath by Frederic Leighton. Venus Verticordia by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The Birth of Venus c. William Shakespeare 's erotic narrative poem Venus and Adonis , a retelling of the courtship of Aphrodite and Adonis from Ovid's Metamorphoses ,   was the most popular of all his works published within his own lifetime.
Lewis described an attempted reading of it as "suffocating". Aphrodite appears in Richard Garnett 's short story collection The Twilight of the Gods and Other Tales ,  in which the gods' temples have been destroyed by Christians. In the early twentieth century, stories of Aphrodite were used by feminist poets,  such as Amy Lowell and Alicia Ostriker.
A Memoir of the Senses in , the name "Aphrodite" has been used as a title for dozens of books dealing with all topics even superficially connected to her domain. In , Gleb Botkin , a Russian immigrant to the United States, founded the Church of Aphrodite , a Neopagan religion centered around the worship of a Mother Goddess , whom its practitioners identified as Aphrodite.
Aphrodite is a major deity in Wicca ,   a contemporary nature-based syncretic Neopagan religion. The statuette portrays Aphrodite on the point of untying the laces of the sandal on her left foot, under which a small Eros squats, touching the sole of her shoe with his right hand.
The Goddess is leaning with her left arm the hand is missing against a figure of Priapus standing, naked and bearded, positioned on a small cylindrical altar while, next to her left thigh, there is a tree trunk over which the garment of the Goddess is folded. Aphrodite, almost completely naked, wears only a sort of costume, consisting of a corset held up by two pairs of straps and two short sleeves on the upper part of her arm, from which a long chain leads to her hips and forms a star-shaped motif at the level of her navel.
Traces of the red paint are evident on the tree trunk, on the short curly hair gathered back in a bun and on the lips of the Goddess, as well as on the heads of Priapus and the Eros. An interesting insight into the female ornaments of Roman times, the statuette, probably imported from the area of Alexandria, reproduces with a few modifications the statuary type of Aphrodite untying her sandal, known from copies in bronze and terracotta.
For extensive research and a bibliography on the subject, see: XCI; Kraus , nn. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the Greek goddess. For other uses, see Aphrodite disambiguation. For other uses, see Cypris disambiguation. Late second-millennium BC nude figurine of Ishtar from Susa , showing her wearing a crown and clutching her breasts. Early fifth-century BC statue of Aphrodite from Cyprus , showing her wearing a cylinder crown and holding a dove. Sufism in the Soviet Union , London: Waanders, [ pp. Alexandrie du Caucase ou Alexandrie de l'Oxus? Épisode d'un voyage à la chaîne centrale du Caucase , Paris: A Political History , London: Taylor Francis, ['This book explores the prominent role Circassians played during the Turco-Greek War or the Turkish National Liberation War of , and examines the changing nature of Circassians relations with the Turkish and Russian states, as well as the new actors of Caucasian politics such as the US, the EU, and Georgia.
Alashara, [English translation by D. Jahrhundert aus archäologischer Sicht: Neue Wege zu ihrer Lösung Vol. Pabel, [date unknown] [61 pp. Politics, Energy and Security , London: Tauris, ['Examining US policy from Clinton to Obama and drawing on interviews with leading figures in the US administration, this study presents the first systematic analysis of US policy towards the Caspian states. Bell and Sons, [With chapter on rugs from the Caucasus.
Mullah-Mohammed, der Murschid von Jarach. Die Schlacht bei Himry. Zur Geschichte des kaukasischen Krieges in den Jahren u. Verlag der Deckerschen Geheimen Ober-Hofbuchdruckerei, [ pp. Akademii Nauk, [ pp. Gelesen in der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften am December , Berlin: Weatherhill, [ pp. Carl Winter - Universitätsverlag, [55 pp. Ethnographic Sketches , Tbilisi: Metsniereba, [ pp. Berichte aus dem Georgia and Armenia in Crisis , London: Frenckell, [ pp. Imperial Borderlands and Peoples, , Bloomington: Dutch painter , Voyages au Levant , Delft: Dutch painter , Voyages dans la Moscovie et la Perse , 2 volumes, Amsterdam: Hakluyt Society, [ pp.
Die deutsche Gebirgstruppe , Dorheim: Journeys among the defiant people of the Caucasus , London: Documents and Maps, , Slough: Royal Ontario Museum, [ pp. Urania, [79 pp. Collins, [The author describes 'a good deal of natural history mixed up with various forms of sport, such as fishing, hunting, shooting, stalking, tracking, etc. Buschan's Illustrierte Völkerkunde , Vol. II includes a contemporary account of the Battle of Didgori; published in English: Rinaldi, De expeditione Argonautorum in Colchidem , 2 volumes, Venice: Notes d'un touriste , Paris: Macmillan, ['The handsome and aristocratic, thirty-five year old diplomat Lord Athelstan knows that he is heading for trouble on his mission to the Caucasus to investigate how long the legendary Shamyl, the Imam of Daghestan, can hold out against the invading Russians.
But little does he expect to be faced with another kind of conflict—with a beautiful young hostage imprisoned in the Imam s stronghold. The lovely Natasha is only nineteen and she was seized along with a Royal party by the Imam s followers and held to ransom against the release of the Imam's only son by the Russians.
Orphaned, she has no hope of raising a ransom and instead has reluctantly agreed to be given to the Sultan of Turkey as a wife for his vast harem in return for the release of her nine-year-old brother.
The Imam implores Lord Athelstan to escort Natasha safely to Constantinople—a favour he cannot grant lest it anger the Russians and compromise Great Britain. But then he meets her—undoubtedly the most glorious woman he has ever seen, with fire in her eyes, when he informs her that he cannot agree to Shamyl's request. Ultimately Natasha gives him no choice and, when she appears among his party in disguise, Lord Athelstan is furious. Soon their mutual hatred turns to all-consuming love—a love surely doomed by Natasha's pledge to sacrifice herself to the Sultan's harem for the sake of her brother.
She finds that he has accumulated an enormous number of debts, and to meet his creditors everything in their house, which has been in the Lester family for generations, has to be sold. Even though she has sold a great number of treasures, she is still short of money. Alnina goes round the house to see what else she can find to sell. In her mother's bedroom she sees her extraordinary and unusual wedding dress, which her father had found in China.
Exquisitely embroidered, it was decorated with diamante and many precious stones. She decides she would ask what seems to her a very large sum for it and advertises it in The Times.
They had been there several years earlier and found gold in one of the tall mountains of the Caucasus before the Duke through two unexpected deaths, succeeded to his title. William warns him that Prince Vladimir is determined to marry his daughter to an English Nobleman and it would therefore be dangerous for him to visit Tiflis in case he was forced by some means or other up the aisle with the Princess.
How the Duke concocts a plan and answers the advertisement for the wedding dress. How he finds that Alnina can speak Russian fluently. And how he begs her to go out with him to Tiflis and then encounters a different danger but a very menacing one that leads them both eventually to their hearts' desire is all told in this intriguing adventure. Flammarion, [ pp.
Ullstein, [ pp. Henri Georg, [Vol. I Période préhistorique; vol. II Période protohistorique; vol. III Période historique; vol. Esquisse historique et ethnographique , Lyon: François Maspero, [Reprinted by La Découverte, Hardel, ['Notre travail prouvera, sinon la parenté originelle du Tibétain et du Chinois avec le Tcherkesse et le Géorgien, au moins l'existence de rapports intimes ayant dû exister entre ces divers groupes linguistiques, à une époque vraisemblablement antérieure aux plus anciens souvenirs de l'histoire profane et de la chronologie.
Cuisine, Alimentation, Métissages , no. Pre-Modern and Modern Practices: Identity, Diversity and Dialogue , Brussels: Textile Art from Daghestan , London: Sovietsky Khudozhnik, [ pp. Nation-Building and Diplomacy in Armenia, , London: Gomidas Institute, [pp. Sovremenoe sostoianie i zadachi , in Novi Vostok , Vol. Remarques ethnographiques" Talishi — Etnograficheskie zametki , in Izvestia of the C. Neografia, [ pp. Performance and Consequences , Carlisle Pennsylvania: Culture and philosophy , Ottawa: Falcon's Wing Press, [ pp.
An amazing document detailing how to organize psychic energy in the human system. Contains step-by-step exercises, including use of Vitic Power Rods. As proprietor of his "Esoterica" shop in New York City, Count Colonna-Walewski maintained a large collection of "mystic and occult curios", at one point boasting over 20, objects and "the largest library on demonology in America".
The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities , London: Contes du Caucase , Paris: Crausaz; contains "Histoire d'un homme fort", "Comment la fille du Tsar apprit à travailler", "Le Roi des serpents", "La petite tasse du pauvre Avner", "Le renard et le petit diable", "Comment Tritino devint Tsar", "Le Roi-Lion", "L'amitié fidèle des deux Issa", "L'oiseau merveilleux de la bouche duquel tombent les roses de mai", "Le bagne qui valait cent villes et cent villages".
Frederick eds , The guns of August Russia's war in Georgia , M. La Pensée Universelle, [ pp. Primitive literature of the Empire of the Tsars , London: Süddeutscher Verlag, [ pp. Eine vergleichende Studie , Wien: Stock, [ pp. Terskii Oblastnoi Statisticheskii Komitet, Dalgat's original thesis, Moscow: Hunt link , unpublished. Hunt, unpublished] Damals am Kaukasus: Jakob van Meurs, [German edition, translated by Beern, 2 vols, Nürnberg: Systematics, ecology and phylogeny of the polymorphic groups of caucasian lizards of the subgenus Archeolacerta", Leningrad: Izdat el 'stvo "Nauka", [ pp.
Reisen und Forschungen im Kaukasischen Hochgebirge , 3 volumes, Berlin: Jonathan Cape, ['In the middle of the night in , Doctors Without Borders administrator Christophe André was kidnapped by armed men and taken away to an unknown destination in the Caucasus region. For three months, André was kept handcuffed in solitary confinement, with little to survive on and almost no contact with the outside world.
Rowland Ward, [ pp. Wolfgang Moritz Endters seel. Druck und Verlag von Albert Sacco, ca. A World-System Biography , Chicago: S , June [Also contains an article on "l'Islam soviétique".
Leipa, [ pp. Hachette, [16 pp. Missionsdruckerei Sankt Gabriel, [24 pp. Phébus, [A remarkable woman who accompanied her husband disguised as his son. Original publication date unknown. Hartleben, [ pp. Dolidze, edited and with commentaries by M.
Chikovani, translated from the Russian [into English] and with a new introduction by D. Merani Publishing House, L'Harmattan Collection "Parlons" , [ pp. Hartleben, Dossiers Histoire et Archéologie , No. Éditions Cercle d'Art, [ pp. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, [ pp. Field Studies , London: Voyage entre guerre et paix , Paris: Georges Chamerot, [66 pp.
Librairie de Gide, [Vol. Voyages du Caucase en Indus , Paris: Jules Tallandier, [ pp. Stokes, former British High Commissioner to the Transcaucasus].
The little democracies the world forgot , Paris: Jabagi — Traduits, commentés et précédés d'une introduction grammaticale par G. Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Nouvelles études oubykh Travaux et mémoires de l'Institut d'ethnologie de l'Université de Paris, Vol.
Presses Universitaires de France, Études abkhaz , Bibliothèque archéologique et historique de l'Institut français d'archéologie d'Istanbul, Vol. Librairie Adrien Maisonneuve, Moscow and the Caucasus, , London: Folio-Verlag, [ pp.
Duvillers — La première partie , Paris: From the Caucasus to Canada, translated and edited by Peter J. Klassen , Hillsboro KA: Mennonite Brethren Publishing House, [ pp. A fleeing Russian refugee finds a life of restored hope in Canada. Druffel, [ pp. A Journey Through Persia , London: Jonathan Cape, [Chapter 3: Bogosluzhebnye kanony i piesni Armiyanskoy vostochnoy tserkvi; perevel s drevne-armianskago yazyka N. Emin; polnyy perevod ["Hymns: Emin; complete translation"] , Moscow: Phoenix Publications, [Double issue 6 and 7 of Readings in Glass History ; includes a chapter on "finds in the Caucasus".
Januar ", in Verhandl. Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg , Vol. Sprachproben und grammatische Skizzen , Wien: Schrader, [17 pp. Arguing for Caucasian influences", in Linguistic Typology , Vol.
Apud Gulielmum vande Water, [ pp. Archaeological Excavations , Oxford: Bernard Grasset, [pp. Ludwig Reichert, [ pp. This compilation lists all kinds of monuments that might be of interest to the traveler in the region, such as buildings, ruins, excavation sites, places of birth of artists and other persons of interest, but also nature reserves and spas. König, [ pp. Harcourt, Brace and Co.
It is SOV, ergative, postpositional, head-marking, and massively agglutinative. First attested in around in the Seyâhatnâme of Evliya Çelebi, it was originally spoken in the region surrounding the modern Russian city of Sochi, then in exile in north-western Turkey after the 19th-century invasion of the northern Caucasus by the Russian Empire and subsequent emigration en masse of the Ubykh nation.
Ubykh already has considerable linguistic renown for its titanic inventory of consonant phonemes comprising at least 80 segments in the only well-attested dialect , but it also demonstrates great complexity in morphology and syntax. The sketch is liberally illustrated with examples drawn mainly from 14 identified speakers, and is based upon both the published corpus and previously unpublished field recordings; many of the example sentences and one of the sample texts are published here for the first time.
It is hoped that this sketch, the first Ubykh grammar in English, will stimulate renewed interest in the language and provide a useful reference for Caucasological researchers. Fessendon , New York: Fessenden published the first six chapters of 'The deluged civilization of the Caucasus isthmus' and in published one additional chapter.
The present posthumous volume contains four additional chapters and seven articles on related subjects Only one hundred copies have been printed for private distribution. The records of the pre-deluge civilization of the Caucasus isthmus; The home of Abraham; How it was discovered that the so-called myth lands were the Cascusus isthmus; Finding a key to the sacred writings of the Egyptians; Caucasia, mother of the great civilizations; The morning land of the Caucasus; The zenith of the Babylonian astronomers; Plato's Atlantis word puzzle; The Egyptian ten pre-deluge kings of Solon and Plato; An apparently definite identification of masons with the Egyptian M-s-n; Synopsis of some unpublished chapters of the deluged civilization.
Fisher, who vanished during an ascent of Dych-Tau; Fischer was a member of the search party. Coquemard, ['[Paru] A Angoulême chez L.
Urachhaus, [Friar Paul's memories of a childhood spent in the Caucasus. Paravia, [43 pp. Ltd, [ pp. A reporter's trip to Russia in after the failed Revolution. Ein Leitfaden für jedermann, der echte Teppiche kaufen oder verkaufen will ["What one needs to know about oriental rugs: Odhams Press Ltd, [ pp. Reise Know-How Verlag Rump, [ pp. Ancient Treasures from the Museums of U. Metropolitan Museum of Art, [Exhibition catalogue. The Cartographic Heritage , London: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan , London: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan , London: Syméon Stylite l'ancien et de S.
Delius Klasing, [ pp. Mouton, [77 pp. Les éditions Cartouche, Presses universitaires de France, [Many references to the Caucasus, notably geophysical and ethnographic.
Éditions de la Nouvelle revue française, ['En forme d'apologue, mais transposé dans le siècle d'André Gide, ce récit est une parodie de la légende antique. Prométhée n'est plus enchaîné à son rocher du Caucase, mais attablé avec Damoclès et Coclès dans un café des Boulevards.
Son aigle ne l'a pas abandonné pour autant et revient périodiquement lui mordiller le foie. Ses deux compagnons entretiennent des relations ambiguës avec un banquier du nom de Zeus qui fait de l'acte gratuit une règle de vie.
Gide, [ pp. Pétersbourg, publia plusieurs livres sur la Russie dont deux sur les musées de l'Ermitage et de Tzarskoé Selo. Ici description de toutes les régions du Caucase: Codex vindobonensis georgicus 2 , Turnhout: Caccia allo stambecco del Caucaso", Milano: North of the Mountains of Caucasus: Laupp, [ pp.
Nationalism and Social Change , Ann Arbor: Stanford University Press, [Account of the American Relief Administration's efforts during the Russian Famine, , and a fascinating look at the Soviet Union in the early days following the Russian Revolution. Sononis Press, [ pp. März , München: Reclam, [52 pp. Race and the Politics of Etymology in the Caucasus", in Caucasus paradigms: The Abrek in Chechen Culture", in Kritika: Weg und Kämpfe der Infanterie-Division, , Tübingen: Kameradenhilfswerk und Traditionsverband der ehemaligen Infantiere-Division, [ pp.
Claassen Goverts, [ pp. Voenizdat, [Soviet history of operations against Nazi forces in the Caucasus. Krystall Verlag, [ pp. In the Wake of Warriors , London: Barnes and Company, Inc. Nymphaeaceae — Platanaceae , Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, ['Treats a range of polypetalous families with keys to genera and species, descriptions, distribution summaries and plates; the species are also provided with dot distribution maps covering an area between 38 deg and 50 deg E.
Turkey which temporarily fell under Russian control in the early 20th century. A Caucasian Story — With an introduction by R. Cunninghame Graham , London: Excursion au Caucase, littoral de la Mer Noire , Paris: Städtische Galerie, [87 pp. Pallas , 2 Volumes, St Petersburg: Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences, The Caucasus Expedition , London: Kohlhammer, [ pp. Christian Brandstätter, [ pp. The Countess von Suttner was 'an Austrian novelist and radical pacifist, the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the second to be awarded the Nobel Prize'.
This biography includes the story of her elopement to the Caucasus with her much younger husband in the late XIXth century. Gesellschaftlicher Wandel 5,, v.
Oktober in Kiel , Vol. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Eurasien-Abteilung , [ pp. Gyldendal, [ pp. Danish travel literature; judging by his portrait on the cover bandaged feet , his journey involved walking great distances.
Bildbericht der Heeresgruppe Süd , Dorheim: Dörfler, [ pp. With an Account of Schamyl and the Murids , London: An Eventful History , London: The Rand Corporation, A Handbook , London: Helwingsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, [Vol. Steinacker, [ pp. Zwei junge Schweizerinnen im Kaukasus , Bern: Blaukreuz-Verlag, [ pp. The author served as an advisory internist, mainly on the eastern front, the Caucasus, and Turkey. Reimer, [ pp. Historischer Roman um den Volkshelden Schamil , Heilbronn: Salzer, [ pp.
Mundo Verlag, [ pp. Beck, [ pp. The Sochi Project, [ pp. We visited the refugees in Georgia and described the attempts made by the Abkhazian government to repopulate the empty, war-ravaged country with new immigrants. The Sochi Project, ['Entirely composed of negatives which were damaged by x-ray scanners during our stay in Grozny.
In the Chechen capital, these scanners are not only placed at the entrance to the airport or government buildings, but also to shops, gyms, restaurants and outside on squares.
The Sochi Project, [46 pp. The Sochi Project, [80 pp. In her husband disappeared, like so many men in the North Caucasus disappear without a trace—kidnapped, arrested or simply executed and buried in anonymous graves.
Writer Arnold van Bruggen and photographer Rob Hornstra met her by chance and became intrigued by her story, which is drenched with blood, but punctuated by the will to survive. Hornstra and van Bruggen then came to the attention of the security forces, who ultimately prevented them from travelling through the region. Even the strong Khava was intimidated and her family has avoided all contact since.
The First Year, ; II. Between Crescent and Sickle: Partition and Sovietization, Berkeley CA: Route militaire géorgienne; II: Côte de la Mer Noire , Moscow: Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, [ pp.
Tübner, [ pp. Caucasus and Chechnya , unpublished [alas! An Account of the British Expedition , London: From Grower to Consumer , London: Pitman, "I Chefsuri", Milan: Hutchinson, [Sapper unit in the Northern Caucasus, whose speciality was blowing up bridges. La guerre oubliée du Caucase , Paris: From Historical Roots to the Present , Moscow: Dr Vahan, Armenien in der Bibel: Studien zur Armenischen Geschichte ["Armenia in the Bible: Armenian historical studies"], Vienna: Göschen, [81 pp.
University of Colorado Boulder, Verein Deutscher Rosenfreunde e. Thielmann, ['Jacoby was the guiding force in Germany' largest and most powerful Oriental rug corporation. An affectionate look back at earlier days: Weaving, dyeing, embroidery"], Tbilisi: Food and drink"], Tbilisi: Stroyizdat, [ pp. Devrien, [ pp. Lang, [ pp. Steiner, [ pp. Les mégalithismes à travers le monde , Paris: Hachette, [ pp. Heliopolis, [ pp.
Jünger was sent to the Caucasus from the 24th of October to the 13th of February to document war crimes and to report back on officer morale. The book includes an account of his two "tours" in Paris during the war. Fünf Jahre kriegsgefangen im Kaukasus , Osnabrück: Aufgrund seiner russischen Sprachkenntnisse zumeist in der Lagerverwaltung eingesetzt, hat er tiefe Einblicke in die Struktur der Lager, aber auch in die wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Spätstalinismus der Sowjetrepublik Georgien gewonnen.
Eigene Beobachtungen, zahlreiche Gespräche mit Mitgefangenen, dem russischen und georgischen Lagerpersonal, aber auch die häufigen Kontakte zur Bevölkerung vermitteln lebendige Eindrücke vom Leben und der Arbeit der Kriegsgefangenen wie von den Menschen und der Natur Georgiens. Joseph, Alarodiens et proto-Basques: Joseph, Mythologie arméno-caucasienne et hétito-asianique: Heitz, [ pp. Missionsverlag, [ pp. Harrassowitz, [ pp. The location of the various oriental churches ranged from Ethiopia to the Caucasus, and from the Mediterranean to southern India, Central Asia and China.
This volume, which was first published in , provides an overview of oriental Christianity from its beginnings to modern times.
The new edition has been heavily revised and updated. Includes a comprehensive bibliography. Kiepenheuer, "Kaukasische Reise: Karawane-Verlag, [84 pp. Kaukasus-Bergfahrten an der Jahrhundert-Wende , Bonn: Köllen, [55 pp. Brill Academic Publishers, [ pp. This collection of articles discusses the relationship between West and East, North and South in Roman and Mediaeval times.
Most of the articles offer analysis of archaeological finds and sites in Crimea studies in recent years. University of Washington Press, Russisch-Kaiserliche Mineralogische Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg, [21 pp. Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, [ pp.
Recipes adapted to American tastes and methods of preparation"], New York: Features "Cossack tribesmen" and "the Red Ravens — Stalin's elite corps of women commandos". Etnograficheski ocherk , in E. Ethnographical Review" Pshavia i Pshavtsi: Etnograficheskoe obozrenie , in Zapiski of the C. Artanuji, [ pp. Brockhaus, [23 pp. Shrine and religious community"], Kutaisi: Created by teachers and teacher trainers for teachers and travelers. Includes the real on culture, people, language, alphabet, communications, transportation, cities, places, weather, food, shopping, money, health, safety, sex, stuff, teaching and jobs.
Pages of vital links, addresses and numbers to help you find what you want. Anhang zur Reise in den Kaukasus und nach Georgien. Die Sprache der urartaischen Inschriften und ihre Stellung im kaukasischen Sprachenkreise", in Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft , 5, Berlin: Memories of a journet from Tiflis to the Crimea"], Leipzig: Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, [84 pp.
Kazgosizdat, [Illustrated book on dressmaking, with patterns and techniques for women's, men's and children's clothing, including traditional garb of the Caucasus. Eindrücke von eine Reise , Bremen: Krüger, [ pp. Wolf, Kampf um den Kaukasus , München: Deutsches Druck- und Verlagshaus,? Érrance, [ pp. Droit coutumier ossétien éclairé par l'histoire comparée , Paris: IV, [11 pp.
Leopold Stocker, [ pp. Handbuch für individuelles Entdecken , Bielefeld: Trans-Religious Migrations of an Ancient Western Asian Symbolism , DK Printworld, ['This well-illustrated volume seeks to explain an enigmatic and paradoxical symbolism common to many of the world religions, both polytheistic and monotheistic - that of the cavernous maw of a great monster.
Drawing on a broad array of comparative evidence, including examples from Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian and Islamic religions, it delves on the cross-cultural points of contact that may have contributed to the spread of such zoomorphic hybrids from Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran to the Indian Subcontinent.
Straddling the boundaries between popular and textual traditions the gaping jaws of a great monster is a mythical paradigm of the bivalence of a deep-seated historic force: Books on Demand, [ pp. Publications on North Caucasian Languages No. Christoph Links, [ pp. Verlag Deutsche Buchwerkstätten, circa [92 pp. Trescher Verlag, [Guide-book for visitors to Georgia.
State Publishing House, Dirr published under the title "Das Familiengewohnheitsrecht der Tscherkessen" in the Zeitschrift für vergleichend Rechtswissenschaft , Vol. Orient-Verlag, La guerre du Caucase: Cirque d'hiver, [12 pp. Le Passage du Don; 3ème: La Grande Revue; 4ème: L'Attaque des Monts Oural'. Europa Verlag, [44 pp. The American Numismatic Society, [11 pp. Etnografia de Caucaso occidental y central , Valencia: