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Brind, are you aware of any studies or data other than the Mohit Jain et al study mentioned earlier that would speak directly to the risk of accelerating cancer growth for example — in an existing breast cancer tumor by taking supplemental glycine in the 7 — 10 grams per day range? Not Helpful 20 Helpful There are no published clinical trials, pilot studies, or case reports on the effectiveness of a vegetarian diet for the management of cancer therapy and symptoms. I know this issue is quite controversial, but do you mind me asking…what is your view on vaccines? This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about nutrition before, during, and after cancer treatment.
The importance of calories and protein
Many pests are now pesticide resistant due to the ubiquitous presence of pesticides in our environment. Chlorinated pesticide residues are present in the air, soil, and water, with a concomitant presence in humans. Potentially beneficial dietary interventions include identifying and treating blood glucose dysregulation, identifying and avoiding allergenic foods, and avoiding suspected triggering agents such as alcohol, aspartame, and monosodium glutamate. Nutrients that may reduce seizure frequency include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese, taurine, dimethylglycine, and omega-3 fatty acids.
Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, vitamin D, and L-carnitine may be needed to prevent or treat deficiencies resulting from the use of anticonvulsant drugs. However, arginine, yohimbine, Panax ginseng, Maca, and Ginkgo biloba all have some degree of evidence they may be helpful for erectile dysfunction. This interest is also bringing to light some of the oldest natural remedies for both sexual dysfunction and enhancement.
Traditional Chinese herbalists treat sexual imbalances such as impotence or reduced desire by improving adrenal energy, muscle strength and endurance with herbs that increase vitality and immunity.
For improved sexuality, herbal adrenal tonics are often combined with moistening or blood-building herbs that reduce stress and increase sexual fluids.
Harmonizing sexual drive and capacity with sexual fluids is said to bring happiness, compassion and love. Not all women with the virus develop cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. It has been postulated there are multiple host factors that contribute to progression of disease. Many of these factors, such as nutrient deficiencies, can be reversed, which will result in regression of dysplastic lesions.
Studies have shown dietary intervention and nutrient supplementation to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. Soy and other phytoestrogens, black cohosh, evening primrose oil, vitamin E, the bioflavonoid hesperidin with vitamin C, ferulic acid, acupuncture treatment, and regular aerobic exercise have been shown effective in treating hot flashes in menopausal women.
To know the cause is to know the cure. The cause of PMS appears to be a complicated interplay among hormones, neurotransmitters, nutrients and psychosocial factors. To complicate the picture further, the same imbalances are not present in every person suffering from PMS.
This article is a review of the literature, citing numerous studies, sometimes with conflicting views, of the etiology and non-drug treatment for premenstrual syndrome. Specific nutrients and botanicals are discussed as they relate to particular neuroendocrine imbalances. In view of the fact that there appears not to be one particular deficiency or excess which can be identified in each case of PMS, the most reliable method of treatment involves a comprehensive approach which includes dietary changes, supplementation of specific nutrients and botanicals, and when indicated, use of identical to natural hormones such as progesterone.
Refer to the Women's Health Page for more information on this topic. Refer to the Chiropractic and Female Issues Page for more information. Evidence from multiple sources support the concept of decreased flux through the serotonin pathway in fibromyalgia patients. The reduced sensitivity to pain and improvement in quality of life measured in this study appear to be clinically relevant and a larger, double-blind study is warranted.
Individuals with gallstones may experience various gastrointestinal symptoms and are also at risk of developing acute or chronic cholecystitis. Nutritional supplements that might help prevent gallstones include vitamin C, soy lecithin, and iron. While minimal scientific evidence supports the efficacy of this treatment, anecdotal reports suggest the gallbladder flush may be beneficial for some people.
Bromelain also appears to have effects on cell surface antigens. Although all of its mechanisms of action are still not completely resolved, it has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective supplement. A great deal of this information has addressed cholesterol and fat intake saturated vs. In addition to these studies, a number of scientists have been investigating the connection between micro-nutrients vitamins, minerals, amino acids, flavonoids, coenzymes and heart disease.
The oxidation of LDL cholesterol has been linked to vascular damage leading to atherosclerotic plaques. Antioxidant activity and subsequent inhibition of LDL oxidation has been attributed to the dietary and supplemental intake of specific micro-nutrients, including vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B6, glutathione, flavonoids, beta carotene, lipoic acid, and coenzyme Q In addition, elevated homocysteine levels have been implicated in a number of other clinical conditions, including neural tube defects, spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, low birth weight, renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, alcoholism, osteoporosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and complications of diabetes.
Nutritional intervention with the cofactors required for optimal metabolism of the methionine-homocysteine pathways offers a new, integrated possibility for primary prevention and treatment. Supplementation with betaine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin B6 assists in optimizing methyl- and sulfur-group metabolism, and might play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of a wide array of clinical conditions.
Deficiencies of CoQ10 have been documented in patients with heart disease. Administration of CoQ10 has been shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life in patients with cardiomyopathy.
In patients with congestive heart failure, CoQ10 ameliorated symptoms, reduced the number of hospitalizations and appeared to increase the survival rate. Treatment with CoQ10 may also reduce the number of anginal attacks in patients with stable angina pectoris. CoQ10 has been shown to prevent adriamycin cardiotoxicity and to reduce the incidence of postoperative cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing heart surgery.
Several studies indicate that CoQ10 may also have a role in the treatment of essential hypertension. This nutrient may be of value for patients with diabetes mellitus or male infertility, but additional studies are needed in these areas. CoQ10 status may be adversely affected by treatment with certain cholesterol-lowering drugs, beta blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and phenothiazines.
C-reactive Protein and the Inflammatory Disease Paradigm: This may account for alpha-tocopherol's positive effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Finally, polyphenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in cardiovascular disease. The phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil may explain some of the protective effects found in epidemiological studies. Vitamin E supplementation may also be beneficial in the prevention of cerebro- and peripheral vascular diseases.
Refer to the Vitamin E Page for more information on this topic. Refer to the Resveratrol Page for more information. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate.
Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. The use of the botanical components glycyrrhizin, catechin, silymarin and phytosterols, and the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E are reviewed for their efficacy in treating chronic hepatitis and affecting liver damage.
Therefore, the search for other treatments is of utmost importance. Several natural products and their derivatives have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of hepatitis C and other chronic liver conditions. Other herbal and nutritional supplements have mechanisms of action that make them likely to be of benefit. Although billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States for the treatment and detection of cardiovascular disease, current conventional treatments have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension.
Alternative medicine offers an effective way to decrease the rising number of people with high blood pressure. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements, and herbs. Refer to the Chiropractic and Blood Pressure Page for more on this topic. This phytosterol complex seems to target specific T-helper lymphocytes, the Th1 and Th2 cells, helping normalize their functioning and resulting in improved T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell activity.
A dampening effect on overactive antibody responses has also been seen, as well as normalization of the DHEA: A large portion of antibiotics are dispensed by pediatricians treating common outpatient infectious diseases. The overuse of antimicrobials is beginning to be discouraged as scientific evidence is emerging to support the use of other therapies.
In pediatric practice an emphasis on accurate diagnoses, control of environmental risk factors, and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine CAM therapies could reduce antibiotic prescribing.
The immune-enhancing properties also suggest an array of clinical uses, both in preventive medicine, due to its ability to build a more responsive immune system, and in clinical medicine, as a therapeutic agent in conditions associated with lowered immune function, decreased NK activity, or chronic viral infection. Immunological Activity of Larch Arabinogalactan and Echinacea: Food and Drug Administration FDA as a source of dietary fiber, but also has potential therapeutic benefits as an immune stimulating agent and cancer protocol adjunct.
Refer to the Immunity and Nutrition Page for more information on this topic. Refer to the Chiropractic and Immune FunctionPage for more information. A number of nutritional therapies have been shown to improve sperm counts and sperm motility, including carnitine, arginine, zinc, selenium, and vitamin B Numerous antioxidants have also proven beneficial in treating male infertility, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and coenzyme Q Refer to the Chiropractic and Infertility Page for more information on this topic.
Bacillus coagulans is a notable exception which, due to its sporulated form, survives without special handling and proliferates in the gastrointestinal environment. The difficulty of differential diagnosis and its treatment may significantly delay initiation of optimal therapy.
In addition, most common pharmacological approaches target IBS symptom management rather than treatment, and prescribed medications often result in significant side effects. The purposes of this review article are to: The Causes of Intestinal Dysbiosis: Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis have all been linked to alterations in the intestinal microflora.
The intestinal dysbiosis hypothesis suggests a number of factors associated with modern Western living have a detrimental impact on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
Factors such as antibiotics, psychological and physical stress, and certain dietary components have been found to contribute to intestinal dysbiosis.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Series. Therefore, herbal and other natural sleep aids are gaining popularity, as herbs commonly used for their sedative-hypnotic effects do not have the drawbacks of conventional drugs. Whether alternative therapies possess activity similar to conventional therapies needs further evaluation.
The syndrome presents differently in many individuals, with the unifying factor being chronic pelvic pain and disruption of daily life activities. Many etiologies have been proposed as causative factors for IC, although it is likely triggered by more than one process. Treatment for many individuals revolves around symptom management and improving quality of life; however, it is imperative to remove aggravating factors such as food and daily stressors.
Treatment will vary for individuals, as symptoms and etiology will differ. This article discusses nutritional and other non-toxic approaches to treating IC. Basic scientific research has uncovered the mechanisms by which some plants afford their therapeutic effects. Silybum marianum milk thistle has been shown to have clinical applications in the treatment of toxic hepatitis, fatty liver, cirrhosis, ischemic injury, radiation toxicity, and viral hepatitis via its antioxidative, anti-lipid peroxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and liver regenerating effects.
Clinical research in this century has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the treatment of liver disease, while basic scientific research has uncovered the mechanisms by which some plants provide their therapeutic effects.
This article is Part Two in a review of botanicals used in the treatment of liver disease. Curcuma longa turmeric , Camellia sinensis green tea , and Glycyrrhiza glabra licorice are reviewed in this installment. Silybum marianum milk thistle and Picrorhiza kurroa kutkin were reviewed in Part One. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Relationship to Insulin Sensitivity and Oxidative Stress.
There is increasing evidence that steatosis in NASH is a result of the pathology in fat metabolism occurring in obesity and insulin resistance. For steatosis to progress to necroinflammation and fibrosis, however, the theory of mitochondrial oxidative-stress induced cellular damage is receiving wide acceptance.
Treatment approaches that address these etiologies are reviewed: The symptoms associated with the slow accumulation of toxic metals are multiple and rather nondescript, and overt expression of toxic effects may not appear until later in life. The sulfhydryl-reactive metals mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic are particularly insidious and can affect a vast array of biochemical and nutritional processes.
More recent clinical use and research substantiates this compound s efficacy and safety, and establishes it as the premier metal chelation compound, based on oral dosing, urinary excretion, and its safety characteristics compared to other chelating substances. Mercury Toxicity and Antioxidants Series. Dietary supplementation for MS minimally requires potent vitamin supplementation, along with the thiol antioxidants, the anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, and adaptogenic phytonutrients.
Gut malabsorption and dysbiosis can be corrected using digestive enzymes and probiotics. This study documents objective biochemical changes following the removal of these fillings along with other dental materials, utilizing a new health care model of multidisciplinary planning and treatment.
Ways to add calories to your diet Add whole milk, cream, sour cream or yogurt to soups, mashed potatoes, sauces, casseroles or vegetables. Add whipping cream or whipped topping to desserts, pancakes, waffles, fruit, milkshakes and hot chocolate. Melt butter over potatoes, rice, pasta or cooked vegetables. Add butter to soups, casseroles or breads. Use regular mayonnaise and salad dressings on sandwiches, salads and dips.
Add jam, syrup or honey to bread, crackers, muffins, cereals or pancakes. Add ice cream to desserts. Add hard cheese to scrambled eggs, sandwiches, potatoes, soups, sauces and casseroles. Add cream cheese to crackers, bagels and breads. Add dried fruit to cereal and baked goods. Add nuts and seeds to cereal, baked goods and stir-fries. Your body needs water and other fluids to stay healthy. Talk to your healthcare team first. Alcohol can interfere with some medicines, treatments such as chemotherapy and certain health conditions.
Alcohol also increases the risk of developing certain types of cancer. If you choose to have a drink after talking to your healthcare team, you may find that it increases your appetite and helps you enjoy your meal.
However, alcohol is low in nutrition and high in calories, so a drink or 2 may make you feel full — and then you may not feel like eating anything else. They might recommend some of the following alternatives.
Commercial nutrition supplements are a good source of calories and nutrients. They come in a variety of flavours and forms, including a ready-to-use beverage similar to a milkshake , a powder, a pudding or a bar. Try different varieties to find one that is right for you. Some provincial and private healthcare insurance plans may cover the cost under certain conditions.
Talk to a registered dietitian if you think that you will need to rely on commercial nutrition supplements more than food. If it becomes too hard for you to eat or drink and you lose a lot of weight, your healthcare team may suggest using a feeding tube to help meet your nutrition needs. If the digestive system is not working properly, parenteral nutrition may be given.
Parenteral nutrition may be called total parenteral nutrition, or TPN. It provides fluids and essential nutrients directly into the bloodstream through an intravenous IV catheter. Your body needs vitamins and minerals to function properly. The best way to obtain vitamins, minerals or other nutrients is by eating healthy foods. Evolution of the adaptive immune system occurred in an ancestor of the jawed vertebrates.
Many of the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system e. However, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish. These animals possess a large array of molecules called Variable lymphocyte receptors VLRs that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number one or two of genes.
These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity. When B cells and T cells are activated and begin to replicate, some of their offspring become long-lived memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again.
This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges.
Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory. Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection.
Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother. During pregnancy , a particular type of antibody, called IgG , is transported from mother to baby directly through the placenta , so human babies have high levels of antibodies even at birth, with the same range of antigen specificities as their mother.
This passive immunity is usually short-term, lasting from a few days up to several months. In medicine, protective passive immunity can also be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum. Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells. Active immunity can also be generated artificially, through vaccination. The principle behind vaccination also called immunization is to introduce an antigen from a pathogen in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that particular pathogen without causing disease associated with that organism.
With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed.
Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components. The immune system is a remarkably effective structure that incorporates specificity, inducibility and adaptation. Failures of host defense do occur, however, and fall into three broad categories: Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly , with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age due to immunosenescence.
Additionally, the loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection. Immunodeficiencies can also be inherited or ' acquired'.
AIDS and some types of cancer cause acquired immunodeficiency. Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders. Here, the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body. Under normal circumstances, many T cells and antibodies react with "self" peptides.
Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the body's own tissues. Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy. Symptoms can range from mild discomfort to death. Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE , which triggers degranulation of mast cells and basophils when cross-linked by antigen.
This is also called antibody-dependent or cytotoxic hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis poison ivy. These reactions are mediated by T cells , monocytes , and macrophages. Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection,  but it can appear without known cause.
It is likely that a multicomponent, adaptive immune system arose with the first vertebrates , as invertebrates do not generate lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral response.
Immune systems appear even in the structurally most simple forms of life, with bacteria using a unique defense mechanism, called the restriction modification system to protect themselves from viral pathogens, called bacteriophages.
Pattern recognition receptors are proteins used by nearly all organisms to identify molecules associated with pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides called defensins are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all animals and plants, and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.
Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes , and are thought to play a role in the immune response to viruses. Unlike animals, plants lack phagocytic cells, but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Systemic acquired resistance SAR is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a particular infectious agent.
Another important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumors. This is called immune surveillance. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens appear foreign, and their presence causes immune cells to attack the transformed tumor cells.
The antigens expressed by tumors have several sources;  some are derived from oncogenic viruses like human papillomavirus , which causes cervical cancer ,  while others are the organism's own proteins that occur at low levels in normal cells but reach high levels in tumor cells. One example is an enzyme called tyrosinase that, when expressed at high levels, transforms certain skin cells e.
The main response of the immune system to tumors is to destroy the abnormal cells using killer T cells, sometimes with the assistance of helper T cells. This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal. Clearly, some tumors evade the immune system and go on to become cancers.
Paradoxically, macrophages can promote tumor growth  when tumor cells send out cytokines that attract macrophages, which then generate cytokines and growth factors such as tumor-necrosis factor alpha that nurture tumor development or promote stem-cell-like plasticity. The immune system is involved in many aspects of physiological regulation in the body. The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine   and the nervous    systems.
The immune system also plays a crucial role in embryogenesis development of the embryo , as well as in tissue repair and regeneration.
Hormones can act as immunomodulators , altering the sensitivity of the immune system. For example, female sex hormones are known immunostimulators of both adaptive  and innate immune responses. By contrast, male sex hormones such as testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive.
When a T-cell encounters a foreign pathogen , it extends a vitamin D receptor. This is essentially a signaling device that allows the T-cell to bind to the active form of vitamin D , the steroid hormone calcitriol.
T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. Not only does the T-cell extend a vitamin D receptor, in essence asking to bind to the steroid hormone version of vitamin D, calcitriol, but the T-cell expresses the gene CYP27B1 , which is the gene responsible for converting the pre-hormone version of vitamin D, calcidiol into the steroid hormone version, calcitriol.
Only after binding to calcitriol can T-cells perform their intended function. Other immune system cells that are known to express CYP27B1 and thus activate vitamin D calcidiol, are dendritic cells , keratinocytes and macrophages.
It is conjectured that a progressive decline in hormone levels with age is partially responsible for weakened immune responses in aging individuals. As people age, two things happen that negatively affect their vitamin D levels. First, they stay indoors more due to decreased activity levels. This means that they get less sun and therefore produce less cholecalciferol via UVB radiation. Second, as a person ages the skin becomes less adept at producing vitamin D.
The immune system is affected by sleep and rest,  and sleep deprivation is detrimental to immune function. When suffering from sleep deprivation, active immunizations may have a diminished effect and may result in lower antibody production, and a lower immune response, than would be noted in a well-rested individual. Additionally, proteins such as NFIL3 , which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and our circadian rhythms, can be affected through the disturbance of natural light and dark cycles through instances of sleep deprivation, shift work, etc.
As a result, these disruptions can lead to an increase in chronic conditions such as heart disease, chronic pain, and asthma. In addition to the negative consequences of sleep deprivation, sleep and the intertwined circadian system have been shown to have strong regulatory effects on immunological functions affecting both the innate and the adaptive immunity.
First, during the early slow-wave-sleep stage, a sudden drop in blood levels of cortisol , epinephrine , and norepinephrine induce increased blood levels of the hormones leptin, pituitary growth hormone, and prolactin. These signals induce a pro-inflammatory state through the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin , TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. These cytokines then stimulate immune functions such as immune cells activation, proliferation, and differentiation.
It is during this time that undifferentiated, or less differentiated, like naïve and central memory T cells, peak i. This milieu is also thought to support the formation of long-lasting immune memory through the initiation of Th1 immune responses. In contrast, during wake periods differentiated effector cells, such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and CTLs cytotoxic T lymphocytes , peak in order to elicit an effective response against any intruding pathogens.
As well during awake active times, anti-inflammatory molecules, such as cortisol and catecholamines , peak. There are two theories as to why the pro-inflammatory state is reserved for sleep time. First, inflammation would cause serious cognitive and physical impairments if it were to occur during wake times. Second, inflammation may occur during sleep times due to the presence of melatonin.
Inflammation causes a great deal of oxidative stress and the presence of melatonin during sleep times could actively counteract free radical production during this time. Overnutrition is associated with diseases such as diabetes and obesity , which are known to affect immune function. More moderate malnutrition, as well as certain specific trace mineral and nutrient deficiencies, can also compromise the immune response.
Foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system. The immune system, particularly the innate component, plays a decisive role in tissue repair after an insult. The plasticity of immune cells and the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals are crucial aspects of efficient tissue repair. According to one hypothesis, organisms that can regenerate could be less immunocompetent than organisms that cannot regenerate.
The immune response can be manipulated to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection , and to stimulate protective responses against pathogens that largely elude the immune system see immunization or cancer.
Immunosuppressive drugs are used to control autoimmune disorders or inflammation when excessive tissue damage occurs, and to prevent transplant rejection after an organ transplant. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation.
Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects , such as central obesity , hyperglycemia , osteoporosis , and their use must be tightly controlled. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells. However, the killing is indiscriminate and other constantly dividing cells and their organs are affected, which causes toxic side effects.
Cancer immunotherapy covers the medical ways to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer tumours. Immunology is strongly experimental in everyday practice but is also characterized by an ongoing theoretical attitude. Many theories have been suggested in immunology from the end of the nineteenth century up to the present time.
The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw a battle between "cellular" and "humoral" theories of immunity. In the mids, Frank Burnet , inspired by a suggestion made by Niels Jerne ,  formulated the clonal selection theory CST of immunity. More recently, several theoretical frameworks have been suggested in immunology, including " autopoietic " views,  "cognitive immune" views,  the " danger model " or "danger theory" ,  and the "discontinuity" theory.
This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins which are typically larger than Da.