Tuesday, January 18, 2011
Rationale Helpful in evaluating cancer related pain symptoms, which may involve viscera, nerve, or bone tissue. In the beginning, nursing educational program was the part of medical educational program. If cancer is advanced, it is emotionally helpful for client to be able to set realistic activity goals to achieve optimal independence. Midwifery training is similar in length and structure, but is sufficiently different that it is not considered a branch of nursing. Lack of exposure, unfamiliarity with information or resources, Information misinterpretation, Lack of recall Common Treatment Methods of Lung Cancer A common treatment method of Lung Cancer is Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is all classified as a treatment for lung cancer. The number of diploma programs has declined steadily—to less than 10 percent of all basic RN education programs—as nursing education has shifted from hospital-operated instruction into the college and university system.
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Typed résumé or CV. Be sure to include your full name with your résumé submission. Prerequisite courses must be taken at regionally or nationally accredited schools. ACE credits are not accepted. Complete a residency application and submit it either by mail, e-mail, or fax to the Office of the Registrar using the instructions supplied at the bottom of the residency application.
The completed application, signed and dated, should be submitted prior to the first day of enrollment for the term and program for which you are seeking admission. The Admissions Committee will review completed applications on a rolling basis and release decisions accordingly. Space is limited so applicants are encouraged to apply early.
Please submit a concise essay no more than words that clearly describes how the completion of the RN to BSN option will influence your nursing practice. Your essay will be reviewed by the Admissions Committee so that we may learn more about you; it also serves as a writing sample. The Admissions Committee is looking for a well-articulated response.
A copy of your active, unrestricted State of Maryland or compact state RN license. This program is not eligible for F-1 or J-1 student visa sponsorship by the University of Maryland, Baltimore due to the amount of online courses. Your recommendation must come from a recent professional source. Please submit a concise essay that addresses your prior education and work experience, as well as how you expect the BSN and the MS to enhance your professional career goals.
A well-written essay will incorporate the following:. Download, print, and complete the Prerequisite Course List. We are currently accepting applications and will continue to review complete applications based on class space availability.
Please submit a ,word essay that addresses the following:. Applicants to the CNL program who meet minimum standards to be considered for admission will be asked to interview in person as part of the selection process. The interview will also include a proctored writing sample. Start your application now. For all Spring and later applicants, a form and letter will be required. Only the first two recommendations received will be considered.
Applicants are expected to submit a concise essay no more than words addressing the following: Complete the form and submit by mail to: An interview with selected applicants will be arranged after the applications are received and reviewed.
This program is not eligible for F-1 or J-1 student visa sponsorship by the University of Maryland, Baltimore. Applicants should possess a bachelor's or master's degree from an institution recognized by either the U. Department of Education for domestic institutions or the equivalent ministry of education for institutions outside of the United States. All applicants must satisfy the general requirements of the University of Maryland Graduate School and submit the following materials:.
Official Transcript s in English or native language transcript or mark sheets if applicable from your undergraduate and graduate schools listing subjects studied or marks received and rank in class or division. Transcripts should delineate a cumulative grade point average of at least 3. If the GRE is required you must have taken the test within five years of application date. The Admission Committee will review completed applications on a rolling basis and release decisions throughout the admission cycle.
Space may be limited so applicants are highly encouraged to apply early and well in advance of the deadline. If you are accepted, you will receive notification and more details on course registration, tuition status, compliance requirements, etc.
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Contact the Office of Admissions at option 2 or admissions. The University of Maryland School of Nursing embraces a culture that embodies UMB's core values of accountability, civility, collaboration, diversity, excellence, knowledge, and leadership.
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All application materials must be submitted by the dates listed above. Prior to applying, applicants must complete a minimum of: Applicants can have no more than four total courses in progress at the time of application. Additionally, due to the timing: To use AP scores you must have scored a 4 or higher. If you have completed coursework outside of the U. Submit by mail to: Register to take the TEAS at a local community college. For more information or for any registration issues, contact ATI at If you do not have a degree from a U.
July 15 spring enrollment: In the beginning, nursing educational program was the part of medical educational program. On the basis of this structure, the nurse follows the instruction of physician without any question. Nowadays, nursing educational program in Iran has been progressed and after the year considering the community base care, the nursing educational program also has changed.
At present nursing education is held in 43 governmental nursing colleges and 63 nursing colleges of Azad University. Governmental universities' students do not have to pay tuition fee, but in Azad University, which is a private university, the students must pay necessary expenses. The PhD degree program is held only in governmental universities under the supervision of Ministry of Health and Ministry of Sciences.
In bachelor's degree program, nursing students start the clinical work from 2nd term and pass till the completion of 6th term simultaneously with theoretical subjects. At present nursing educational program in throughout Iran is the same and is compiled under the supervision of Supreme Council of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. Nursing students take the theoretical subjects, training and internship courses in various sections of educational hospitals and hospitals that affiliated to universities.
Students' learning, in clinical sections is performed under the direct supervision and guidance of nursing instructors, but in the final year, activities of students mainly performs under the supervision of nursing personnel and alternate supervision of nursing instructors.
Students, during the years of study have opportunity to create relation with patients in the various sections especially intensive care units and to achieve experiences. Students' progress in clinical environments is from simple issues toward harder issues. At present practical nursing degree and associate degree Nursing Program has been canceled and Iranian nurses must hold bachelor's degree to work in Iran from accredited universities confirmed by the Ministry of Health.
Nurse is a person who is holding four years university degree and executes works relating to nursing profession including taking care of patients, perform health and medical services, educational, research and managerial affairs. At present annually persons are graduated in the bachelor's degree program in nursing. A person who is holding secondary school diploma in nursing and have completed 2 years program in nursing and cooperate in activities of nurses in medical sections under the supervision of nurses.
A person who is holding secondary school diploma and passing short term program for the execution of initial cares of patients under the supervision of nurses. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program are in charge of performing professional duties in operation room for preparing patients for surgery and necessary cooperation with surgeons at the time of surgery.
These persons by passing the exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program in Anesthesia, are in charge of performing profession duties in the operating room in the field of anesthesia including preparing the patients for anesthesia and necessary cooperation with anesthesiologists at the time of operation.
These persons by passing exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing.
These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing entrance exam of university and obtaining technician diploma are in change of performing affairs including rendering first aid services to the patients and emergency victims resulting from accidents with motor vehicles, explosion, debris, falling from height, fractures, burns, poisonings, cuts, drowning, industrial accidents cutting of limbs , patients with heart diseases and baby delivering.
Nurses after obtaining bachelor's degree and passing the entrance exam are eligible to continue their study in geriatric nursing, pediatric nursing, medical surgical nursing, community health nursing, psychiatric nursing and nursing education. These persons after graduation mainly become in charge of nurses' education or management of medical sections.
Duration of this program is 2. At present annually persons are graduated in master's degree program in nursing. Nurses by holding master's degree after passing entrance exam, are eligible to continue their study in PhD in the field of Nursing. Duration of this program is 4 years and the graduates mainly will work in educational and research sections. At present annually 20 persons are graduated in this program. According to the censes at present approximately , nurses are working in Iran in various sections.
Also, nurses are working in the hospitals affiliated to social security organization, armed forces, private sector and charity sector. Within the last years of independence, nurses' activities are established in offices of consultancy and rendering nursing services at home. Nurses by establishment these centers can render consultant and care services to the client. At present to work as a nurse only holding accredited academic degree is sufficient, but there are programs for nurses to take RN examination after graduation.
Also, upon the approval and execution of continuous educational act, the Iranian nurses should obtain score of 15 every year in various educational courses held by the Ministry of Health of Universities, Scientific Associations and Nursing organization. To practice lawfully as a registered nurse in the United Kingdom, the practitioner must hold a current and valid registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The title "Registered Nurse" can only be granted to those holding such registration.
First-level nurses make up the bulk of the registered nurses in the UK. Second-level nurse training is no longer provided; however, they are still legally able to practice in the United Kingdom as a registered nurse.
Many have now either retired or undertaken conversion courses to become first-level nurses. Many nurses who have worked in clinical settings for a long time choose to leave clinical nursing and join the ranks of the NHS management. This used to be seen as a natural career progression for those who had reached ward management positions, however with the advent of specialist nursing roles see above , this has become a less attractive option. Nonetheless, many nurses fill positions in the senior management structure of NHS organizations, some even as board members.
Others choose to stay a little closer to their clinical roots by becoming clinical nurse managers or modern matrons. Currently, this involves completing a degree , available from a range of universities offering these courses , in the chosen branch specialty see below , leading to both an academic award and professional registration as a 1st level registered nurse. These courses are three occasionally four years' long.
The first year is known as the common foundation program CFP , and teaches the basic knowledge and skills required of all nurses. Skills included in the CFP may include communication, taking observations, administering medication and providing personal care to patients.
The remainder of the program consists of training specific to the student's chosen branch of nursing. As of , the Nursing and Midwifery Council will require all new nurses qualifying in the UK to hold a degree qualification.
Midwifery training is similar in length and structure, but is sufficiently different that it is not considered a branch of nursing. There are shortened 18 month programs to allow nurses already qualified in the adult branch to hold dual registration as a nurse and a midwife. Shortened courses lasting 2 years also exist for graduates of other disciplines to train as nurses.
This is achieved by more intense study and a shortening of the common foundation program. As of [update] student nurses in England and Wales can apply a bursary from the government to support them during their nurse training, and may also be eligible for a student loan, although there has been speculation that this will not be available in the future.
Before Project , nurse education was the responsibility of hospitals and was not based in universities; hence many nurses who qualified prior to these reforms do not hold an academic award.
After the point of initial registration, there is an expectation that all qualified nurses will continue to update their skills and knowledge.
The Nursing and Midwifery Council insists on a minimum of 35 hours of education every three years, as part of its post registration education and practice PREP requirements. There are also opportunities for many nurses to gain additional clinical skills after qualification. Cannulation , venipuncture , intravenous drug therapy and male catheterization are the most common, although there are many others such as advanced life support , which some nurses undertake.
Many nurses who qualified with a diploma choose to upgrade their qualification to a degree by studying part-time. Many nurses prefer this option to gaining a degree initially, as there is often an opportunity to study in a specialist field as a part of this upgrading.
Financially, in England, it was also much more lucrative, as diploma students get the full bursary during their initial training, and employers often pay for the degree course as well as the nurse's salary. To become specialist nurses such as nurse consultants, nurse practitioners etc. Master's degrees exist in various healthcare related topics, and some nurses choose to study for PhDs or other higher academic awards.
District nurses and health visitors are also considered specialist nurses, and to become such they must undertake specialist training. This is a one-year full-time degree. All newly qualifying district nurses and health visitors are trained to prescribe from the Nurse Prescribers' Formulary, a list of medications and dressings typically useful to those carrying out these roles.
Many of these and other nurses will also undertake training in independent and supplementary prescribing, which allows them as of 1 May to prescribe almost any drug in the British National Formulary. This has been the cause of a great deal of debate in both medical and nursing circles. Canadian nursing dates back to in Quebec with the Augustine nuns.
The establishment of this mission created the first nursing apprenticeship training in North America. Most nurses were female and only had an occasional consultation with a physician. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, hospital care and medical services had been improved and expanded. Much of this was due to Nightingale's influence. In the first formal nursing training program was started at the General and Marine Hospital in St. All Canadian nurses and prospective nurses are heavily encouraged by the Canadian Nurses Association to continue their education to receive a baccalaureate degree.
They believe that this is the best degree to work towards because it results in better patient outcomes. In addition to helping patients, nurses that have a baccalaureate degree will be less likely to make small errors because they have a higher level of education.
A baccalaureate degree also gives a nurse a more critical opinion, which gives him or her more of an edge in the field. This ultimately saves the hospital money because they deal with less problematic incidents. All Canadian provinces and territories except for the Yukon and Quebec require that all nurses must have a baccalaureate degree.
However, Canada does have a condensed program that is two years long. Nursing specialty certification is available through the Canadian Nurses Association in nineteen practice areas. Canadian nurses hold a lot of responsibility in the medical field and are considered vital. According to the Canadian Nurses Association, "They expect RNs to develop and implement multi-faceted plans for managing chronic disease, treating complex health conditions and assisting them in the transition from the hospital to the community.
Canadians also look to RNs for health education and for strategies to improve their health. RNs assess the appropriateness of new research and technology for patients and adjust care plans accordingly". Nursing was not an established part of Japan's healthcare system until with the Midwives Ordinance. This established a legal substantiation to registered nurses all over Japan. A new law geared towards nurses was created during World War II: There has been a continued effort to improve nursing in Japan.
In the Nursing Human Resource Law was passed. Those programs were designed to raise the education level of the nurses so that they could be better suited for taking care of the public. This type of nursing is designed to help the public and is also driven by the public's needs. The goals of public health nurses are to monitor the spread of disease, keep vigilant watch for environmental hazards, educate the community on how to care for and treat themselves, and train for community disasters.
Nurses that are involved with midwifery are independent of any organization. A midwife takes care of a pregnant woman during labour and postpartum. They assist with things like breastfeeding and caring for the child. Individuals who are assistant nurses follow orders from a registered nurse. They report back to the licensed nurse about a patient's condition. Assistant nurses are always supervised by a licensed registered nurse.
In Japan established the first nursing university in the country. Soon people began to want nursing degrees at a higher level of education. Currently Japan offers doctorate level degrees of nursing in a good number of its universities. There are three ways that an individual could become a registered nurse in Japan.
After obtaining a high school degree the person could go to a nursing university for four years and earn a bachelor's degree, go to a junior nursing college for three years or go to a nursing school for three years. Those who attended a nursing university have a bit of an advantage over those who went to a nursing school.
They can take the national exam to be a registered nurse, public health nurse or midwife. In the cases of become a midwife or a public health nurse, the student must take a one-year course in their desired field after attending a nursing university and passing the national exam to become a registered nurse.
The nursing universities are the best route for someone who wants to become a nurse in Japan. These nursing universities train their students to be able to make critical and educated decisions when they are out in the field. Physicians are the ones who are teaching the potential nurses because there are not enough available nurses to teach students.
This increases the dominance that physicians have over nurses. Students that attend a nursing college or just a nursing school receive the same degree that one would who graduated from a nursing university, but they do not have the same educational background. The classes offered at nursing colleges and nursing schools are focused on more practical aspects of nursing.
These institutions do not offer many general education classes, so students who attend these schools will solely be focusing on their nursing educations while they are in school. Students who attend a nursing college or school do have the opportunity to become a midwife or a public health nurse. They have to go through a training institute for their desired field after graduating from the nursing school or college.
Once they have passed their exam, they have their license for life. Like the United States, Japan is in need of more nurses. The driving force behind this need this is the fact that country is aging and needs more medical care for its people. The country needs a rapid increase of nurses however things do not seem to be turning around. Some of the reasons that there is a shortage are poor working conditions, an increase in the number of hospital beds, the low social status of nurses, and the cultural idea that married women quit their jobs for family responsibilities.
However, physicians make twice as much as nurses. They are considered lesser and oftentimes negative connotations are associated with nurses. According to the American Nurses Association article on Japan, "nursing work has been described using negative terminology such as 'hard, dirty, dangerous, low salary, few holidays, minimal chance of marriage and family, and poor image'".
Some nurses in Japan are trying to be advocates. They are promoting better nursing education as well as promoting the care of the elderly. The JNA is not to be confused with a union, it is simply a professional organization for the nurses.
Members of the JNA lobby politicians and produces publications about nursing. According to the American Nurses Association's article on Japan the JNA, "works toward the improvement in nursing practice through many activities including the development of a policy research group to influence policy development, a code of ethics for nurses, and standards of nursing practice".
The JNA also provides certification for specialists in mental health, oncology and community health. The  JNA is not the only nursing organization in Japan. There are other subgroups that are typically categorized by the nurses' specialty, like emergency nursing or disaster nursing.
One of the older unions that relates to nursing is the Japanese Federation of Medical Workers Union, which was created in This organization was involved with the Nursing Human Resource Law. In the US, scope of practice is determined by the state or territory in which a nurse is licensed. Each state has its own laws, rules, and regulations governing nursing care. Usually the making of such rules and regulations is delegated to a state board of nursing , which performs day-to-day administration of these rules, licenses nurses and nursing assistants, and makes decisions on nursing issues.
In the hospital setting, registered nurses often delegate tasks to LPNs and unlicensed assistive personnel. RNs are not limited to employment as bedside nurses.
Some registered nurses are independent consultants who work for themselves , while others work for large manufacturers or chemical companies. Research nurses conduct or assist in the conduct of research or evaluation outcome and process in many areas such as biology, psychology, human development, and health care systems. Many employers offer flexible work schedules, child care, educational benefits, and bonuses.
About 21 percent of registered nurses are union members or covered by union contract. Nursing is the nation's largest health care profession, with more than 3. Nurses comprise the largest single component of hospital staff, are the primary providers of hospital patient care, and deliver most of the nation's long-term care. The primary pathway to professional nursing, as compared to technical-level practice, is the four-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN degree.
Registered nurses are prepared either through a BSN program; a three-year associate degree in nursing; or a three-year hospital training program, receiving a hospital diploma. All take the same state licensing exam. The number of diploma programs has declined steadily—to less than 10 percent of all basic RN education programs—as nursing education has shifted from hospital-operated instruction into the college and university system.
The oldest method of nursing education is the hospital-based diploma program, which lasts approximately three years. Students take between 30 and 60 credit hours in anatomy , physiology , microbiology , nutrition , chemistry , and other subjects at a college or university, then move on to intensive nursing classes.
Until , most RNs in the US were initially educated in nursing by diploma programs. Some four-year colleges and universities also offer the ADN. Associate degree nursing programs have prerequisite and corequisite courses which may include English, Math and Human Anatomy and Physiology and ultimately stretch out the degree-acquiring process to about three years or greater. The third method is to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN , a four-year degree that also prepares nurses for graduate-level education.
For the first two years in a BSN program, students usually obtain general education requirements and spend the remaining time in nursing courses.
In some new programs the first two years can be substituted for an active LPN license along with the required general studies. Advocates for the ADN and diploma programs state that such programs have an on the job training approach to educating students, while the BSN is an academic degree that emphasizes research and nursing theory.
A BSN degree qualifies its holder for administrative, research, consulting and teaching positions that would not usually be available to those with an ADN, but is not necessary for most patient care functions. Advanced education in nursing is done at the master's and doctoral levels. It prepares the graduate for specialization as an advanced practice registered nurse APRN or for advanced roles in leadership, management, or education.
The clinical nurse leader CNL is an advanced generalist who focuses on the improvement of quality and safety outcomes for patients or patient populations from an administrative and staff management focus. Doctoral programs in nursing prepare the student for work in nursing education, health care administration, clinical research, or advanced clinical practice. Advanced practice registered nurse APRN.
Completion of any one of these three educational routes allows a graduate nurse to take the NCLEX-RN , the test for licensure as a registered nurse, and is accepted by every state as an adequate indicator of minimum competency for a new graduate. However, controversy exists over the appropriate entry-level preparation of RNs. Others feel the on-the-job experiences of diploma and ADN graduates makes up for any deficiency in theoretical preparation. RNs are the largest group of health care workers in the United States, with about 2.
There are data to support the idea that the nursing shortage is a voluntary shortage. In it was estimated that approximately 1. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that , healthcare jobs were created in RNs make up the majority of the healthcare work force, therefore these positions will be filled primarily by nurses. The BLS also states that by , there will be 1. The International Council Of Nursing ICN , the largest international health professional organization in the world, recognizes the shortage of nurses as a growing crisis in the world.
This shortage impacts the healthcare of everyone worldwide. One of the many reasons is that nurses who pursue to become nurses do so very late in their lives. This leads to a non-lengthy employment time. A national survey prepared by the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals in found that one in five nurses plans to leave the profession within five years because of unsatisfactory working conditions, including low pay, severe under staffing, high stress, physical demands, mandatory overtime, and irregular hours.
Employment in home care and nursing homes is expected [ by whom? Though more people are living well into their 80s and 90s, many need the kind of long-term care available at a nursing home.
Many nurses will also be needed to help staff the growing number of out-patient facilities, such as HMOs, group medical practices, and ambulatory surgery centers. Nursing specialties will be in great demand. There are, in addition, many part-time employment possibilities. Furthermore, there is a shortage of academically qualified instructors to teach at schools of nursing worldwide. The serious need for educational capacity is not being met, which is the underlying most important preparation resource for the nurses of tomorrow.
The decrease in faculty everywhere is due to many factors including decrease in satisfaction with the workforce, poor salaries, and reduction in full-time equivalent. Throughout the span of 6 years the nursing faculty shortage has been written about an increasing amount. Unfortunately, there is no clear consensus or an organized plan on how to fix the ongoing issue. With health care knowledge growing steadily, nurses can stay ahead of the curve through continuing education. Continuing education classes and programs enable nurses to provide the best possible care to patients, advance nursing careers, and keep up with Board of Nursing requirements.
The American Nurses Association and the American Nursing Credentialing Center are devoted to ensuring nurses have access to quality continuing education offerings. Continuing education classes are calibrated to provide enhanced learning for all levels of nurses. Many States also regulate Continuing Nursing Education. Nursing licensing boards requiring Continuing Nursing Education CNE as a condition for licensure, either initial or renewal, accept courses provided by organizations that are accredited by other state licensing boards, by the American Nursing Credentialing Center ANCC , or by organizations that have been designated as an approver of continuing nursing education by ANCC.
National Healthcare Institute  has created a list to assist nurses in determining their CNE credit hours requirements. While this list is not all inclusive, it offers details on how to contact nursing licensing boards directly. Professional nursing organizations, through their certification boards, have voluntary certification exams to demonstrate clinical competency in their particular specialty.
Completion of the prerequisite work experience allows an RN to register for an examination, and passage gives an RN permission to use a professional designation after their name. For example, passage of the American Association of Critical-care Nurses specialty exam allows a nurse to use the initials 'CCRN' after his or her name. Other organizations and societies have similar procedures.