Endocrine System

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An Overview of the Hypothalamus
The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases antidiuretic pronounced: Thyroid hormones also help maintain normal blood pressure , heart rate, digestion, muscle tone, and reproductive functions. These help ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells. Corticotropin -releasing factor CRF. Over 50 hormones have been identified in humans and other vertebrates. An example of this is somatostatin which is released by some pancreatic cells and targets other pancreatic cells. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy.

Health Issues

About the Endocrine System

This gland makes a chemical called melatonin. It helps your body get ready to go to sleep. This gland makes thyroid hormone, which controls your metabolism. If this gland doesn't make enough a condition called hypothyroidism , everything happens more slowly. Your heart rate might slow down. You could get constipated. And you might gain weight. If it makes too much hyperthyroidism , everything speeds up.

Your heart might race. You could have diarrhea. And you might lose weight without trying. This is a set of four small glands behind your thyroid. They are important for bone health. The glands control your levels of calcium and phosphorus. This gland makes white blood cells called T-lymphocytes that fight infection and are crucial as a child's immune system develops. The thymus starts to shrink after puberty. Best known for making the "fight or flight" hormone adrenaline epinephrine , these two glands also make corticosteroids.

These are hormones that affect your metabolism and sexual function, among other things. The pancreas is part of both your digestive and endocrine systems. It makes digestive enzymes that break down food. It also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These help ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells. If you don't make any insulin, which is the case for people with type 1 diabetes , your blood sugar levels can get dangerously high. In type 2 diabetes , the pancreas usually makes some insulin but not enough.

In women, these organs make estrogen and progesterone. The hormone-receptor complex switches on or switches off specific biological processes in cells, tissues, and organs. The female ovaries, male testes, and pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands are major constituents of the endocrine system.

Hypothalamus - The hypothalamus links our endocrine and nervous systems together. The hypothalamus drives the endocrine system. This gland has two lobes, the posterior and anterior lobes. The posterior lobe secretes hormones that are made by the hypothalamus.

The anterior lobe produces its own hormones, several of which act on other endocrine glands. These glands produce hormones in response to stress and regulate blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and the body's salt and water balance. Both hormones help regulate the concentration of glucose sugar in the blood.

The major categories of gonadal steroids are androgens, estrogens, and progestins, all of which are found in both males and females but at different levels. It is important to gain a better understanding of what concentrations of chemicals found in the environment may cause an adverse effect. Various types of scientific studies epidemiology, mammalian toxicology, and ecological toxicology are necessary to resolve many of the scientific questions and uncertainty surrounding the endocrine disruptor issue.

Many such studies are currently underway by government agencies, industry, and academia. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. What is the Endocrine System? They are made up of: Glands located throughout the body; Hormones that are made by the glands and released into the bloodstream or the fluid surrounding cells; and Receptors in various organs and tissues that recognize and respond to the hormones.

Learn more about endocrine systems: Why are hormones important?

The Endocrine System’s Link to the Nervous System