Automatic Bibliography Maker
Vitamin E deficiency K: Retrieved January 27, Sharing our feelings is a great start because often the offender has no idea that their words or actions hurt us. Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of malnutrition. Bariatric Surgery Information Guide. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
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It is the act of asking questions and then paying attention to hear the answers. See also prayer Mercy thought, attitude Tendency to be kind, forgiving and sympathetic to those in difficult circumstances including self. Being merciful does not mean rescuing someone by doing their work for them, because that can do more harm than good. It means being a non-judgmental shoulder to cry on. It means giving information when invited to do so Misanthropic attitude Believing the very worst about self or humanity and doing nothing about it because it would be pointless anyway, right?
See distrust Spiritual effects of the pattern: Extremely unlikely to have close, satisfying relationships Physical effects of the pattern: Nasal or sinus issues How to change the pattern: Meditate to learn that the Universal Intelligence communicates with us Misogyny thought, attitude, emotion, belief Loathing of females or defenseless creatures by males or females.
Belief that they can serve no useful purpose other than to reproduce Spiritual effects of the pattern: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the forgiveness and tolerance exercises Obedience attitude Asking God for guidance, waiting around long enough to hear it and then following it. Often done in response to repression or suppression of strong emotions, to gain some measure of control when we feel like a victim. Form of addiction that can be as difficult to treat as chemical dependency; however, if dedicated to healing self, tremendous change is possible.
Before repeating any behaviour, it is important to remember that we have the ability to choose. See free will , OCD , perfectionism Physical effects of the pattern: All of the behaviours can be crippling. They can repel people sometimes that's the whole idea and they can anger people a side benefit. They often end up creating the exact situation we are trying to avoid How to change the pattern: Meditate to identify and resolve the root cause Patience attitude Ability to wait without having any negative thoughts, attitudes or emotions.
In these days of almost instant gratification, we see more and more outbursts of rage - on roads, in airplanes, even simply standing in a lineup. Regarding world peace, many believe that a higher intelligence - either Jesus or possibly extraterrestrials - will bring peace to Planet Earth and save humanity from the brink of destruction, but that sounds a little too easy.
How exactly could it come about? Unless Peace is forced upon us a contradiction in terms , something will be required of us to bring it about. What if that higher intelligence said that in order to save ourselves, we would have to forgive all those who had ever harmed us in any way, intentionally or otherwise?
Or that we would have to share our resources? How might we feel? What would we do? What could we do? Would we be able to forgive one who had harmed us or our loved ones, or had committed a heinous crime? Believe it or not, it can be done. It takes an open mind and an open heart, but it can be done Cause for hope: Although it may not seem so, the peoples of this planet are gradually evolving toward democratic peace. It's a very slow process, because after all, we all want what we want when we want it.
As the knowledge and spirit of universal equality becomes more widespread though, peace will continue to escalate How to build peace: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the forgiveness exercises. Visit Wikipedia and read about Restorative Justice Perfectionism attitude Inability or unwillingness to accept any person or thing that does not meet excessively rigid standards. When we place these standards upon another person, we are controlling , judging , criticizing and condemning them.
Far better to strive for excellence than perfection. We use these standards to gain either our own or someone else's approval whether or not they are present. Can begin early in childhood and is often done in response to the treatment received from our caregivers. It can develop when a child receives constant negative attention for doing anything that does not meet the standards held for that child by the caregivers, or when the child feels invisible in the family. Always looking to catch others in an error, acne , liver diseases , arthritis How to change the pattern: Do the Tolerance exercises.
Meditate to learn that judgment leads to other poor spiritual choices like criticism , condemnation , control , contempt Persecution complex attitude, emotion Feeling that everyone is out to get us, or is judging us, or is thinking about us see narcissism , self-importance , victim.
Can stem from too little or too much favourable attention in early childhood Sounds like: They all think I'm bad Physical effects of the pattern: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the self-esteem exercise Pessimism attitude Outlook on life that says, "What's the point - things will never work out the way I want anyway". Can begin as an act of spite or revenge.
Things will never turn out right. What else is new? Expectation equals result Petulance attitude Childishly sulking to make everyone suffer for not giving us what we want. See blame , manipulation , spite , victim Sounds like: Then you'll be sorry. Learn about greed , humility , sacrifice Phobias thought, attitude, emotion Condition in which our fear of a particular experience is transferred onto one or more creatures, objects or activities, because that is safer than acknowledging the real cause of fear.
Phobias can also develop as a result of having felt a complete loss of control in a situation, such that one feels compelled to avoid potentially similar situations Physical effects: Similar to the effects of long-term anxiety , but usually occurring upon encountering the object of dread: Meditate to identify the underlying fear and its spiritual root cause, as well as the reasons for choosing to react to life in this particular way.
Learn to breathe Post-traumatic stress disorder Can arise after observing or experiencing terrifying events over which one had no control. Somehow we feel that we should have been able to prevent them, or at least been able to fix them or prevent them from ever happening again. The events need not have been life-threatening - they need only have been frightening for us personally Spiritual effects of the pattern: If we feel we are responsible, we can take on guilt.
If we feel others are responsible, we can take on a victim mentality and become extremely passive or aggressive, alternately Secondary Traumatic Stress Compassion fatigue can arise for those caring for someone who needs constant attention, or for those whose job it is to care for victims of traumatic experiences How to change the pattern: The event s may seem impossible to forget, but it is possible to do so.
Visit Section 9 of my website and do the grieving and how to stop worrying exercises Prayer thought, attitude Act of talking to the Universal Intelligence. It seems like we are always asking God the Universal Intelligence, our Creator, the Source of all that is for favours, as if God were a fairy godmother or a genie in a bottle; for example, heal me Saying the words, "Thy will be done," can avoid much needless worry and distress.
Many use prayer as a protection from evil or from the wrath of God. This is not prayer - this is ritual and superstition, which is nothing more than fear that has become habit. Instead of telling God what we want, try asking what we can do in meditation and experience the profound life changes that are possible Procrastination attitude Putting off doing that which one has agreed to do.
This is an act of control. Those who fail to live up to their commitments often have a mate who nags, but will not claim any responsibility for the situation. Hearing , seeing or memory problems, hypochondria How to change the pattern: Meditate to learn what we're trying to gain or create by avoiding doing that which needs to be done Quantum entanglement Commonly known as karma , this system of checks and balances ensures repayment of all favours given and debts incurred throughout each of our incarnations.
Once souls in physical form have interacted, they are connected across space and time until they understand - and forgive - their motives for actions taken or not taken. This information is recorded in the Akashic records, so our guides know exactly what is owed to whom. The system applies to individuals as well as groups, as can be seen in nations that continually battle.
Until there is forgiveness on both sides, the warring will continue Rejection thought Dismissing someone or something because of inferiority or imperfection see also cold shoulder. Used as a punishment when we have judged , criticized and condemned someone or something. Rejection of a person can be a form of abandonment. Rejection of an idea can be a form of denial.
When someone has rejected us, we can feel ashamed of our words, our actions or ourselves Physical effects of the pattern: Meditate to learn that judgment leads to other poor spiritual choices like criticism , condemnation , control , contempt Repression thought Unable or unwilling to acknowledge that one has had a negative experience.
Learned behaviour that can begin in very early childhood as a conscious choice, but develops into a seemingly unconscious reaction whenever experiencing strong emotions denial Spiritual effects of the pattern: Unexpected explosive rages Physical effects of the pattern: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the grieving exercise Resentment thought, attitude, emotion Holding onto a deep-seated grudge against someone who has hurt or offended us can create the habitual need for revenge.
We can even get addicted to the high that comes from allowing our hurt to excuse us from behaving responsibly. Can become a habitual response to people or circumstances that do not meet with our approval. Check out legacy resentment Sounds like: Meditate to learn that judgment leads to other poor spiritual choices like criticism , condemnation , control , contempt Respect attitude Willingness to treat self and others with patience and tolerance , mercy and forgiveness , because we are all children of God.
We are all in varying stages of development and we are all capable of greatness, or of making terrible choices. Being respectful helps us build healthy relationships; however, there is no guarantee of receiving respect back. Others can follow our leadership or not, the choice is theirs to make. Failure to ask permission can stem either from fear that it might not be given or from the belief that we are somehow "entitled".
It is a non-adversarial, non-retributive approach to justice that emphasizes healing in victims, accountability of offenders, and the involvement of citizens in creating healthier, safer communities. The goal is to reach meaningful, satisfying, and fair outcomes through inclusion, open communication, and truth.
See abandonment , cold shoulder. It may feel like hurting others is the only way to deal with our pain, but there is another way… forgiveness! However, forgiveness requires and enables us to stop allowing ourselves to react with resentment. Sharing our feelings is a great start because often the offender has no idea that their words or actions hurt us. At the very least, communication can validate our experience, and it might even open the door to new understanding.
World peace will be impossible until we as individuals stop resenting others and wanting revenge. Let us be the one to flex our forgiveness muscle Sounds like: Meditate to learn that hatred leads to other poor spiritual choices like criticism , condemnation , control , contempt. Check out my blog on Resentment, Revenge and Legacy Resentment Sacrifice attitude Being willing to set aside our needs or beliefs in order to be of service to the Universal Intelligence.
We often call it sacrifice if we help someone, even though we really do it because we are unable to say no to her or him. True sacrifice means giving up what we want to do, in favour of what the Universal Intelligence through our guide in meditation has asked, or not doing something we want to do because the Universe through our guide in meditation has asked that we not. Sometimes this includes not stepping in to help someone uninvited Sarcasm attitude Words whether spoken aloud or not that are intended to ridicule or harm self or another under the guise of humour Physical effects of the pattern: Upper respiratory issues How to change the pattern: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the self-esteem exercise Scorn attitude Treating someone as though they are not worthy of our respect.
Results from having judged , criticized and condemned someone, and our scorn is the punishment. See self-righteousness Looks like: Giving someone a dirty look Physical effects of the pattern: Visit Section 9 of this website and do the tolerance exercises Seeking of Truth and Understanding thought, attitude Being willing to confront Universal Truth about self, our experiences and our belief systems can lead us to full understanding, which enables us to release the past fully and with love.
When we resent someone, we often feel fully justified in not seeking any understanding at all about the offending person's possible motives or intentions for their words or actions. All too often though, offenders are not even aware that they have caused injury.
That's one of the reasons that forgiveness is so important. See Gossip Self-aggrandizement thought, attitude Using others to further self and our own interests, under the guise of it being for the other guy's benefit Sounds like: Making others think that what we advise them to do is to help them, and will not help us in any way.
Selling a product under the false pretense that the buyer will benefit because of it, or will come to harm without it, when the only true reason for selling it is to make a profit Physical effects of the pattern: Heart problems, digestive issues, foot problems How to change the pattern: Do self-esteem exercise in Section 9 Self-esteem attitude Ability to accept our good, and our not-so-good, thoughts, attitudes, emotions, beliefs, desires and behaviours without judgment, criticism or condemnation.
Goes hand in hand with self-respect. Unstable self-esteem prevents us from approving of self unless and until someone usually an authority figure first gives us their approval. Can be a constant fight with self: If they tell us they don't like what we did, we immediately judge, criticize and condemn self - not only for having done a lousy job, but for having had the audacity to think it was ok.
We feel they have attacked us and we respond with anger, usually but not always directed at self. It's a short step then to a wave of depression How to change the pattern: Do the self-esteem exercise in Section 9 Self-importance attitude Belief that we are more deserving of attention than others, and that everything that happens to us is of the utmost importance to everyone. Can be the belief that our beliefs are flawless, or that everything that happens, be it an experience or even a conversation, is about us.
Holding self in very high regard. Pride and conceit are offshoots of ego and self-importance. Self-importance and self- condemnation often go hand-in-hand, because even though we may feel proud of some of our accomplishments, we may also be ashamed of some of our words or actions Sounds like: Let's talk about me and my family, or friends, or pets, or job, or hobbies, or experiences; anything, so long as I don't have to listen to anything about you.
See babble , narcissism Physical effects of the pattern: Chronic flatulence , vertigo How to change the pattern: Do the self-esteem exercise in Section 9 Self-interest attitude Using others for our benefit, with regard only for self Physical effects of the pattern: Digestion disorders How to change the pattern: Meditate to learn the reasons for feeling ignored or neglected Self-righteousness thought, attitude Belief that self is morally pure and beyond reproach, in comparison against someone whom we have judged as being less than perfect.
No one can escape life on earth without having harmed another, either physically or emotionally, whether intentional or not Sounds like: I would never hurt anyone the way you've hurt me - or - God will punish you, but he'll forgive me Physical effects of the pattern: High cholesterol , eye problems , sepsis How to change the pattern: Do the forgiveness exercises in Section 9 Shame emotion Feelings of embarrassment , guilt and remorse that come upon learning that we are not perfect.
Shame can lead to feelings of unworthiness, self-doubt and low self-esteem. Can create the need to live in a state of secrecy about self and our experiences, and a need for isolation. Often associated with a constant state of fear , even panic, that one will be found out. Can create the need for addictive behaviours and substances. Abused children often have a deep sense of shame, for they can believe that they were responsible for their negative experiences.
Shame is also a component of survivor's guilt Sounds like: It's all my fault and I should be punished. I'm bad and everyone can see it Physical effects of the pattern: Skin problems like acne rosacea , rash How to change the pattern: Do the self-esteem , grieving and forgiveness exercises in Section 9 Should thought, attitude Control word used when telling someone what we think they need to do.
We may think we know what's best for others but maybe, just maybe, we don't. Before telling someone else what they should do, consider how it feels when someone else tells us what to do Physical effects of the pattern: Nerve damage, high cholesterol How to change the pattern: The actions need only have the effect of shocking, annoying or repelling others. Examples in no particular order: The fear is that discussion could even make things worse, if that were possible.
When someone feels so impotent that they have to resort to some form of silent rebellion, they can feel that there's no point in doing anything at all - and certainly no point in doing it well. They've lost hope that these conditions will ever change, and they've learned that nothing they do will ever have any positive outcome. It's a miracle to them if they're able to even get up out of bed in the morning.
This complete and utter despair results from constant judgment, criticism and condemnation from a loved one. No matter what they say or do, that person will never give their approval, so of course they have no dreams, for what would be the point? They'll just get dumped on anyway, so they see no reason to even try. The so-called laziness continues until they finally figure out a way to get back at those they feel have created this condition. Then it's, "Aha, I have it!
Because they've finally taken action, the anger and frustration magically go away or at least become suppressed and that's all that really matters. What to do about it As difficult as it can be to stop needing approval from others, that's exactly what's needed to start changing the pattern. Start living for self, instead of living to hear from someone else that what we're doing is good, and right, and important.
Of course the loved one WILL NOT LIKE this change and will do everything in their power to make things go back to the way they were, so it's important to be strong and know that there's a world full of people who will happily give their approval.
The sooner we come to peace with this truth, the sooner we can get on with our lives and become who we were meant to be. Additionally, do the self-esteem exercise in Section 9 Soul mate Belief that we are incomplete until we find the specific person whom the Universal Intelligence created only for us.
We were created as individual souls, whole and complete Spiritual effects of the belief: Co-dependent relationships , victim mentality How to change the pattern: Visit Section 7 of this website and see "Will I ever find my soul mate? Meditate to learn that the desire for revenge leads to other poor spiritual choices like criticism , condemnation , control , contempt.
Visit my blog on Resentment, Revenge and Legacy Resentment Status quo bias attitude Status quo bias is a need to avoid any change, at any cost. So we go on as we always have, wishing for change but seemingly unable to do anything to help ourselves.
We end up being our own victim Spiritual effects of the pattern: Strong need to be in control , depression , feeling like a victim , chronic frustration , repeated injuries, unresolved grief Physical effects of the pattern: Anemia , unstable blood pressure , cancer , varicose veins How to change the pattern: Meditate to gain self-acceptance and visit WikiHow to learn how to deal with change Stress attitude Self-imposed punishment for having judged , criticized and condemned self to be a failure.
The condemnation, the sentence, is harming ourselves in some way, either spiritually or physically. Withholding from self whatever it is that one most wants Physical effects of the pattern: Addictions , hypertension , insomnia How to change the pattern: Meditate to learn what triggers the behaviour Suppression thought Conscious choice to keep our thoughts, attitudes and emotions about painful experiences hidden from others. Can begin as an act of spite. As with repression , keeping everything bottled up inside can create the need for mood-altering substances or habits.
Can prevent us from forming deep, emotional bonds or meaningful relationships Physical effects of the pattern: Do the grieving exercise in Section 9, plus meditate to find the root cause of the behaviour Survivor's Guilt attitude, emotion Crippling condition creating much pain, discomfort and negativity. Can become an addiction. Remaining healthy when a loved one becomes unwell can also create it, as can growing up as the normal child in a family with a special needs child.
Also, some Christians believe that since Christ died on the cross for them, they must prove their appreciation by inflicting pain upon themselves Sounds like: Nothing of lasting benefit can or will come from me. Finding enjoyment in life could be seen as a betrayal of the loved one, or of the family. It could be seen as a failure to punish self enough. Coming into physical form is a part of the entire experience of those souls who do so. Remember that God does not ever judge , criticize or condemn us, and that our loved one's experiences were a part of their path.
We cannot walk their path for them. We must allow them the dignity of ownership. We must not use their experiences as an excuse for failing to live well, or for holding onto resentment or for seeking vengeance , or for punishing self Physical effects of the pattern: Meditate to learn that the Universal Intelligence is in charge of matters of life and death. Then meditate to learn our true life purpose Tolerance attitude and learned behaviour Ability to observe people or to have certain experiences without their creating negative thoughts, attitudes and emotions within us.
Intolerance creates much of the turmoil on this planet. As souls in human form, we face many spiritual challenges. Chief among them is the temptation to hate. If we as individuals fail to grasp the lesson that all are equally loved by the Universal Intelligence, the spiritual laws of reincarnation and karma will ensure that we return to try, try again.
Do the tolerance exercises in Section 9 Traumatic events Any event that causes physical or emotional pain is considered by the Universe to be traumatic for us. Of course some events are far less traumatic than others and we can recover from them more easily. This does not lessen their impact though, especially for children or those reliant on others to provide understanding about what has happened.
Without understanding, grieving and forgiveness , resolution is not possible. Unresolved, trauma can affect us throughout our entire lifetime contributing to addictions , obsessive compulsive behaviours , and even chronic disease.
Here are just a few childhood events that are often trivialized by caregivers: Nadine Burke-Harris Trust thought, attitude Knowing that our Creator loves us unconditionally, that everything required for our learning will be provided, and that each and every experience is given to help us learn how to love ourselves and others unconditionally Unconditional Love Acceptance without conditions a lack of negative thoughts, attitudes and emotions.
We are loved unconditionally by the Universal Intelligence. There is nothing we have to do, nothing we have to change, in order to be loved by God. Universal energy registers in us as unconditional love. Believing that God judges us is to believe that the love is conditional, and this is an untruth and an impossibility, since judgment, criticism and condemnation impose conditions.
Unconditional love can be seen as "tough love", because it allows us to experience all things. It tests us by allowing physical consequences for our spiritual choices.
It allows us to feel pain; it allows us to cause pain. See free will Universal Intelligence The Source of everything. When connecting with it, we may feel an upwelling of emotion that literally brings tears to our eyes. We know then that everything is ok and there's nothing we need to do or change to gain approval.
We are loved unconditionally Universal truth Information that is free from negative thoughts, attitudes or emotions, and that is logical and straightforward. See confirmation bias Vibrational frequency All things vibrate at a specific vibrational frequency VF. Each and every individual soul received a unique VF when the Universal Intelligence created us.
Our VF is not static; rather, it is fluid in that it responds to our reactions to the experiences of each lifetime. We enter each successive existence with the resulting VF. Reducing and refining our negative thoughts increases it, while dwelling in negativity lowers it. We have the innate capability to raise it even beyond the assigned frequency for a given lifetime, although doing so requires tremendous dedication to changing self.
The soul's aim is to learn its way back to Source Victim attitude Belief that we have no power to change our life situation, or to protect from others' negative words or actions.
While we cannot change past events, we can change our reactions to them and thereby change our future. Belief that anything negative in our life has been caused by anyone or anything but self, or that there is no protection from what's out there. Pattern can usually be traced to a traumatic childhood experience that has not been understood or resolved, which prevents it from being released.
Can also come from caregivers being over- or under-protective. Feeling like a victim means that we are blaming others and giving away our power. Being a victim of a crime can also be one of the many required life lessons. In this case, it is important to work through our thoughts, attitudes and emotions surrounding the event, seeking understanding and practicing forgiveness Sounds like: Constant pity parties , telling how everyone has hurt us, everyone is better off than us, nothing ever works out for us, nobody likes us, etc.
Read about spiritual diet in Section 7 War To fully understand why war exists, we must acknowledge the negative thoughts, attitudes and emotions within self, and know that they cause us to behave in negative ways. Holding a grudge against someone for failing to live up to our standards, or for not giving us what we want, is the first step toward war on a personal level. We justify our actions by saying that the person or people we resent deserve it because somehow they're less than human; they don't deserve our respect; they deserve to suffer.
Political leaders are no different than us. They want what they want when they want it, so they take it. War begins when someone says they cannot have it. The population is dragged into their temper tantrum, and along a path of wanton fury.
Another society is then forced to take on the role of parent to stop them Sounds like: On a personal level: On a national level: Read about legacy guilt and legacy resentment in Section 7. Do all of the spiritual exercises in Section 9. Excessive worry can create anxiety and even panic attacks.
Worry is often used as a means of control over our loved ones, and indicates that judgment , criticism and condemnation have taken place. For example, saying we are worried about someone is like saying that we think they are incapable of doing the right thing, that we think they will come to some harm if they continue doing whatever it is they are doing.
Those in co-dependent relationships often worry about their partner. They say they are concerned that their loved one will come to some harm, but the real worry is about self. This is not love - this is control Sounds like: Physical effects of the pattern: Chronic bleeding nose , digestive problems , tinnitus and other ear problems, hair loss , insomnia , nail biting or chronic pain How to change the pattern: Do the how to stop worrying exercise in Section 9.
This website presents the process by which to become self-aware. Start with the Home page and progress through each section. Section 6 - Spiritual glossary. This section gives the spiritual aspect of many human expressions thoughts, attitudes and emotions along with some behaviours and a few commonly spoken words or phrases. If something seems frightening or just plain wrong, ask the Universal Intelligence about it during meditation or contact the author. For purposes of this website, the following meanings are used: Term Spiritual meaning Abandonment thought, attitude, emotion, behaviour.
Overwhelming desire to run away from a difficult situation. Strong feeling of displeasure or hostility. Develop the habit of asking questions instead of assuming we already understand. Intense feelings of dread, uneasiness or apprehension that arise for no apparent reason. Attitude that places self above all others, and a tendency to announce this superiority to others. Meditate to learn who we're really trying to hurt and why. At least thought, attitude. Using these words to compare self to another shows that judgment , criticism and condemnation have taken place, e.
Tendency to hold others to a high standard of morals and ethics, being quick to condemn if we perceive them to have failed to live up to them, whilst happily excusing our own failure to do so by blaming external events. As children, an authority figure is one in whose care we are placed and whom we are taught to trust and obey. A spiritual breach of trust occurs if these people use their position of authority to take advantage of those in their care for their own personal, selfish pleasure or gain.
Wanting to postpone, indefinitely, decisions that need to be made. Visit WikiHow and read Practice making decisions. We often make blanket statements to ourselves that reflect how we feel about ourselves or the world in which we live.
Creates distrust and prevents true joy. This pattern prevents us from looking for the Truth about our part in our experiences. Meditate to learn whose approval we're trying to gain by pretending to be innocent of faults. Do the grieving and self-esteem exercises in Section 9 of this website, plus visit WikiHow and learn how to stop bullying , how to stop being a bully , and how to be assertive, rather than aggressive.
Depriving a child of basic life necessities or withholding them as punishment: Meditate to see the truth that we are not responsible for how our caregivers raised us, then begin to see ourselves as children of God instead of as just our caregivers' children.
Almost any human relationship can become co-dependent. Journal of Food Science. Aug ; 53 6: Polyphenols as Dietary Fiber Associated Compounds. Comparative Study on in Vivo and in Vitro Properties. Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: A study on the Spanish diet.
Mol Nutr Food Res. Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Concept and health-related properties of nonextractable polyphenols: J Agric Food Chem.
Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers. Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: Am J Public Health. A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents.
Am J Clin Nutr. J Tomlin, N W Read. Laxative properties of indigestible plastic particles. Nov 5, ; H Alexiou, A Franck. A lack of adequate breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children, associated with the deaths of an estimated one million children annually. Illegal advertising of breast milk substitutes contributed to malnutrition and continued three decades after its prohibition under the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes.
Maternal malnutrition can also factor into the poor health or death of a baby. Over , neonatal death have occurred because of deficient growth of the fetus in the mother's womb.
Deriving too much of one's diet from a single source, such as eating almost exclusively corn or rice, can cause malnutrition. This may either be from a lack of education about proper nutrition, or from only having access to a single food source. It is not just the total amount of calories that matters but specific nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency , iron deficiency or zinc deficiency can also increase risk of death.
Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of malnutrition. In the United States, more than half of all adults are now overweight — a condition that, like hunger, increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and lowers life expectancy. Many parts of the world have access to a surplus of non-nutritious food, in addition to increased sedentary lifestyles. Yale psychologist Kelly Brownell calls this a " toxic food environment " where fat and sugar laden foods have taken precedence over healthy nutritious foods.
The issue in these developed countries is choosing the right kind of food. More fast food is consumed per capita in the United States than in any other country. The reason for this mass consumption of fast food is its affordability and accessibility. Often fast food, low in cost and nutrition, is high in calories and heavily promoted. When these eating habits are combined with increasingly urbanized, automated, and more sedentary lifestyles, it becomes clear why weight gain is difficult to avoid.
Not only does obesity occur in developed countries, problems are also occurring in developing countries in areas where income is on the rise. In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased.
In Bangladesh, poor socioeconomic position was associated with chronic malnutrition since it inhibits purchase of nutritious foods such as milk, meat, poultry, and fruits. He states that malnutrition and famine were more related to problems of food distribution and purchasing power.
It is argued that commodity speculators are increasing the cost of food. As the real estate bubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved to invest in food and primary commodities, causing the — food price crisis.
The use of biofuels as a replacement for traditional fuels raises the price of food. Local food shortages can be caused by a lack of arable land, adverse weather, lower farming skills such as crop rotation , or by a lack of technology or resources needed for the higher yields found in modern agriculture , such as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, machinery and storage facilities. As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the resources necessary to improve local yields.
The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers. There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that could cause widespread malnutrition. Global warming is of importance to food security, with 95 percent of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics.
According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely. For example, the — central Asian drought brought about an 80 percent livestock loss and 50 percent reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran. An increase in extreme weather such as drought in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa would have even greater consequences in terms of malnutrition.
Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productivity of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions.
Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees die in large numbers. The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green Revolution , resulted in decreases in malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations. This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available.
However, after the government changed policy and subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures, farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3. New technology in agricultural production also has great potential to combat undernutrition. The World Bank itself claims to be part of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed in breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that will give them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.
There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable. However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.
By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died. Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed method for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations. Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash.
Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food. City residents separate organic waste from their garbage, bag it, and then exchange it for fresh fruit and vegetables from local farmers.
As a result, the country's waste is reduced and the urban poor get a steady supply of nutritious food. Restricting population size is a proposed solution. Thomas Malthus argued that population growth could be controlled by natural disasters and voluntary limits through "moral restraint. Instead, these theorists point to unequal distribution of resources and under- or unutilized arable land as the cause for malnutrition problems.
This applies not only to organizing rationing and control, but also to undertaking work programmes and other methods of increasing purchasing power for those hit by shifts in exchange entitlements in a general inflationary situation.
One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty —the right of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems, in contrast to having food largely subjected to international market forces.
Food First is one of the primary think tanks working to build support for food sovereignty. Neoliberals advocate for an increasing role of the free market. Another possible long term solution would be to increase access to health facilities to rural parts of the world. These facilities could monitor undernourished children, act as supplemental food distribution centers, and provide education on dietary needs.
These types of facilities have already proven very successful in countries such as Peru and Ghana. As of is estimated that about , deaths of children less than five years old could be prevented globally per year through more widespread breastfeeding. The medical community recommends exclusively breastfeeding infants for 6 months, with nutritional whole food supplementation and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or older for overall optimal health outcomes.
Breastfeeding is noted as one of the most cost effective medical interventions for providing beneficial child health. Food security and global malnutrition has long been a topic of international concern, with one of the first official global documents addressing it being the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR.
Within this document it stated that access to food was part of an adequate right to a standard of living. The Right to food is a human right for people to feed themselves in dignity, be free from hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition.
However, after the International Covenant the global concern for the access to sufficient food only became more present, leading to the first ever World Food Conference that was held in in Rome, Italy. Ultimately this document outline and provided guidance as to how the international community as one could work towards fighting and solving the growing global issue of malnutrition and hunger.
Adoption of the right to food was included in the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights , this document was adopted by many countries in the Americas, the purpose of the document is, "to consolidate in this hemisphere, within the framework of democratic institutions, a system of personal liberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man.
The next document in the timeline of global inititaves for malnutrition was the Rome Declaration on World Food Security , organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization. This document reaffirmed the right to have access to safe and nutritous food by everyone, also considering that everyone gets sufficient food, and set the goals for all nations to improve their commitment to food security by halfing their amount of undernourished people by One of the most recent and powerful global policies to reduce hunger and poverty are the Sustainable Development Goals.
In particular Goal 2: Zero hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid. The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS.
The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem. It has many worked through viral videos depicting celebrities voicing their anger about the large number of hungry people in the world. Another initiative focused on improving the hunger situation by improving nutrition is the Scaling up Nutrition movement SUN.
Started in this movement of people from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers, publishes a yearly progress report on the changes in their 55 partner countries. In response to child malnutrition, the Bangladeshi government recommends ten steps for treating severe malnutrition.
They are to prevent or treat dehydration , low blood sugar , low body temperature , infection, correct electrolyte imbalances and micronutrient deficiencies, start feeding cautiously, achieve catch-up growth, provide psychological support, and prepare for discharge and follow-up after recovery. Among those who are hospitalized, nutritional support improves protein, calorie intake and weight. The evidence for benefit of supplementary feeding is poor.
Specially formulated foods do however appear useful in those from the developing world with moderate acute malnutrition. In those who are severely malnourished, feeding too much too quickly can result in refeeding syndrome. Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt. For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B Treating malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients vitamins and minerals , improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid , according to the World Bank.
In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, and continuing with daily zinc for ten to fourteen days makes diarrhea less likely recur in the next two to three months.
In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. For a malnourished child with diarrhea from any cause, this should include foods rich in potassium such as bananas, green coconut water, and unsweetened fresh fruit juice. The World Health Organization WHO recommends rehydrating a severely undernourished child who has diarrhea relatively slowly.
The preferred method is with fluids by mouth using a drink called oral rehydration solution ORS. The oral rehydration solution is both slightly sweet and slightly salty and the one recommended in those with severe undernutrition should have half the usual sodium and greater potassium.
Fluids by nasogastric tube may be use in those who do not drink. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have significant dehydration due to their potential complications.
These complications include congestive heart failure. This switch from type of fluid to amount of fluid was crucial in order to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible. To prevent dehydration readily available fluids, preferably with a modest amount of sugars and salt such as vegetable broth or salted rice water, may be used. The drinking of additional clean water is also recommended.
Once dehydration develops oral rehydration solutions are preferred. As much of these drinks as the person wants can be given, unless there are signs of swelling. If vomiting occurs, fluids can be paused for 5—10 minutes and then restarting more slowly.
Vomiting rarely prevents rehydration as fluid are still absorbed and the vomiting rarely last long.