On the other hand, Campbell does not even list the Mediterranean Diet in the indices of his popular books, The China Study and Whole , a stunning tacit admission of his low-fat bias! Therefore, the absolute amount of protein in human milk is higher when measured by grams of protein rather than by percentage of calories. Each 6 mg softgel provides the clinically studied dose of Astaxanthin to support the health of your eyes and skin as well as immune, cardiovascular, and blood lipid health. Because your body can make all the saturated fatty acids it needs, you do not need any in the diet. A deficiency in any will impact your wellbeing.
Folate assists in DNA synthesis and cell division; participates in amino acid metabolism; and is required for the maturation of cells including red blood cells.
Vitamin C is important for many reasons. It enhances iron absorption. It helps with collagen synthesis. It acts as an antioxidant and plays a role in immune function. It also regenerates vitamin E and assists in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, DNA and hormones. Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the liver and fat tissues. These reserves may be released when dietary intakes are low. There is research, however, suggesting that blood levels of vitamin D may be low even in the presence of significant storage in the fat.
We need it for for cell differentiation and bone health too. It supports immune function. Vitamin A also aids both male and female reproductive processes. Major minerals are the ones that the body requires in amounts of at least milligrams per day. They are sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulfur.
The first four are included in the discussion of fluid and electrolytes. It even plays a role in cellular metabolism and helps with blood clotting. People are often less familiar with the role of magnesium, though it assists enzymes in more than chemical reactions in the body. Like calcium, it is a component of bone, participates in muscle contraction and aids in blood clotting. Magnesium supports cell activity, too. Overt symptoms of magnesium deficiency in healthy people are rare.
However, a magnesium deficiency can occur in individuals with kidney disease, alcoholism or prolonged diarrhea. Early signs of poor magnesium status are loss of appetite and weakness. Later signs are muscle cramps, irritability, confusion and cardiac abnormalities. Many people consume suboptimal amounts of magnesium, and low magnesium stores may be related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and immune dysfunction. The minerals that the body requires in amounts less than milligrams per day are referred to as trace minerals.
They are chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Because iron metabolism is the most complicated of the nine, it will be discussed in greater detail. Iron carries oxygen throughout the body - a pretty big responsibility!
It assists in energy metabolism and other enzyme-mediated chemical reactions. It supports immune function as well. The UL for males and females aged 14 and above is 45 mg. It is 40 mg for younger individuals. Side effects of too much iron are gastrointestinal and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. Immediate emergency medical care is critical because death can occur quickly.
In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, the child may experience rapid heartbeat, dizziness and confusion. Hemochromatosis is a genetic defect that causes excessive iron absorption. Over time, iron can accumulate in and cause damage to various parts of the body. The result could be diabetes, liver cancer , cirrhosis of the liver and joint problems. To maintain a neutral energy balance and thus maintain body weight, energy intake should increase with energy expenditure.
It has been shown that cats offered four meals a day or a random number of meals a day have similar energy levels, greater than those fed only one meal per day. As cats age, there is evidence that their metabolic energy requirements may increase,  especially after 12 or 13 years old,  but other evidence suggests that metabolic energy needs are not dissimilar at different ages. Pregnancy and lactation are strenuous periods on the female cat.
It has been found that nutritional support consistent with the resting energy requirement RER soon after surgery or the onset of illness decreases the mortality rate and the duration of hospitalization in cats.
Critical care diets are formulated to be highly palatable and digestible, as well as high energy density. Vegetarian or vegan cat food has been available for many years, and is targeted primarily at vegan and vegetarian pet owners. While a small percentage of owners choose such a diet based on its perceived health benefits, the majority do so due to ethical concerns.
While there is anecdotal evidence that cats do well on vegetarian food,  studies on commercial and homemade vegetarian cat foods have found nutritional inadequacies.
As obligate carnivores, cats require nutrients including arginine, taurine, arachidonic acid, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and niacin found in meat sources. Plant sources do not contain enough of these. Vegetarian pet food companies try to correct these deficiencies by adding synthetically produced nutrients. Cats on a vegan diet can develop abnormally alkaline high pH urine as plant-based proteins are more alkaline than the meat-based foods which cats have evolved to eat.
Calcium oxalate stones can also occur if the urine is too acidic. Such stones can create irritation and infection of the urinary tract and require veterinary treatment. Organizations that advocate vegan or vegetarian diets for people have split opinions regarding vegetarian or vegan cat food. But the Vegetarian Society suggests people "consider carefully" and that many cats will not adjust to a vegetarian diet. They provide a list of necessary nutrients that would need to be supplemented, and recommend that those who want to try should consult a veterinarian or animal nutritionist.
They do not recommend relying on supplements, because they may not contain necessary co-factors and enzymes and have not been studied for long term implications. Hence, regular at least, annual veterinary checkups of all companion animals is recommended, and brands may be occasionally varied. Even when adequately supplemented, vegetarian diets may present other risks, such as urine acidity problems.
While there are anecdotal reports linking a vegetarian diet with urinary tract problems, no documented case report or study exists. In , the first study of the health of a population of long-term vegetarian cats was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. The study consisted of telephone questionnaires of the caregivers of 32 cats, and analysis of blood samples from some of the cats.
The blood samples were tested for taurine and cobalamin deficiencies. Cobalamin levels were normal in all cats. Taurine levels were low in 3 out of 17 cats tested, but not low enough to be considered clinically deficient. Formulation of a nutritionally adequate vegan cat diet has its limitations. The reason for these dietary essential nutrients can be found in the physiology section of the Cat page.
Protein and fat content in a vegan cat diet can be balanced by the inclusion of tofu and yeast. For instance, plant materials do not provide the preformed vitamin A which cats cannot synthesize, therefore supplementation is needed. Some ingredients of vegan cat diets that provide arginine, are pumpkin seed, almond, soya flour, lentil seeds and oat flakes see table one. Cats are obligate carnivores and require protein in their diet as an important component in energy metabolism and maintenance of lean body muscle.
In general, lower protein diets tend to consist of a greater carbohydrate content, which means a potentially higher glycemic response in cats. A nutritional balance of amino acids is important in low protein cat diets as cats are highly sensitive to deficiencies in arginine, taurine, methionine, and cysteine.
Feeding a lower protein content can help lower the amount of calcium being excreted in the feces and urine. A lower amount of harmful bacteria is accumulated with a lower protein diet which helps to increase the amount of positive bacteria present in the gut. In low protein diets, unless the protein source is a high quality protein such as an animal-based protein, cats and especially kittens have been shown to develop retinal degeneration due to a deficiency in taurine , an essential amino acid for cats that is derived from animal protein.
Since cats have such a high protein requirement, lower protein content, and thus lower amino acid concentrations, in the diet has been linked to health defects such as lack of growth, decreased food intake, muscle atrophy, hypoalbuminemia, skin alterations, and more. Low protein diets that are high in carbohydrates have been found to decrease glucose tolerance in cats. Cats have a high priority for gluconeogenesis to provide energy for tissues like the brain.
Low protein diets have been shown to lower the levels of eosinophilic granulocytes in cats, which impacts the overall function of the immune system. The gastrointestinal tract is the source of nutrient absorption, making it integral to overall health. Research shows fiber , prebiotics , probiotics , antioxidants and fatty acids are important in maintaining gastrointestinal health.
The addition of fiber at optimal levels in a diet is essential for the normal function and health of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary fibers are plant carbohydrates which cannot be digested by mammalian enzymes.
Fiber, though it is not an essential nutrient, is important for a healthy gastrointestinal tract. Short-chain fatty acids production from dietary fibers have many other advantageous effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
Fibers promote bacterial growth and activity in the large intestine. Prebiotics are short-chain carbohydrates classified as fibers with an added aspect as they selectively promote the growth of beneficial bacteria.
Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular in the diets of felines. Nutraceuticals such as antioxidants are considered to be additives of gastrointestinal diets to prevent digestive upset. Vitamin C ascorbic acid is a water-soluble antioxidant and a free radical scavenger where it will donate an electron to compounds with unpaired elections or reactive but not radical compounds. A fat is a type of lipid which comes in the form of many different molecules throughout the body, and fatty acids are just one type of fat that can be found.
Inflammation is the process by which the body begins to heal and defend itself from viral and bacterial infections and physical damage like burns or cuts. To achieve optimal cellular health especially in the gut and to maintain a healthy microbiome, proper nutrition is necessary nutrition is multifactorial and complex.
Cats have a higher tolerance for a greater amount of fat in the diet, and although its digestion is complex and important pertaining to its many functions and its influence on immune and inflammatory responses , fat composition in the diet appears to have a small effect on GI disease in cats. One group of fatty acids that is particularly important for gastrointestinal GI health is the essential fatty acid EFA group.
There is very little research on cats in general, especially when diving into very targeted topics like GIT health of cats and the effects of fatty acids of any length on their digestive system, especially cats with GIT disorders.
Many pet owners feed cats homemade diets. These diets generally consist of some form of cooked or raw meat, bone, vegetables, and supplements, such as taurine and Multivitamin s.
A study reported that food packaged in cans coated with bisphenol A is correlated with the development of hyperthyroidism in cats. The main complaint is excessive scratching pruritus which is usually resistant to treatment by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact prevalence of food allergy in cats remains unknown.
A reliable diagnosis can only be made with dietary elimination-challenge trials. Allergy testing is necessary for the identification of the causative food component s.
Therapy consists of avoiding the offending food component s. Malnutrition can be a problem for cats fed non-conventional diets. Cats fed exclusively on raw, freshwater fish can develop a thiamine deficiency.
Those fed exclusively on liver may develop vitamin A toxicity. Also, exclusively meat-based diets may contain excessive protein and phosphorus whilst being deficient in calcium , vitamin E , and microminerals such as copper , zinc , and potassium.
Energy density must also be maintained relative to the other nutrients. When vegetable oil is used to maintain the energy balance cats may not find the food as palatable. The broad pet food recalls starting in March came in response to reports of renal failure in pets consuming mostly wet pet foods made with wheat gluten from a single Chinese company beginning in February Overall, several major companies recalled more than brands of pet foods with most of the recalled product coming from Menu Foods.
The most likely cause according to the FDA is the presence of melamine in the wheat gluten of the affected foods. Melamine is known to falsely inflate the protein content rating of substances in laboratory tests. Some companies were not affected and utilized the situation to generate sales for alternative pet foods. In a study on the impacts of the pet food industry on world fish and seafood supplies, researchers estimate that 2. Based on numbers, cats in the US consume the caloric equivalent of what , 0.
While pet food is made predominantly using byproducts from human food productions, the increase in popularity of human-grade and byproduct-free pet food means there is increasing pressure on the overall meat supply. In , an estimated From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the song by King Crimson, see Cat Food song. Environmental effects of meat production. Rations greater than 4. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. What's really for dinner? The truth about commercial pet food. Retrieved October 2, Journal of Animal Science. Canine and Feline Nutrition: A Resource for Companion Animal Professionals. Journal of Nutritional Science. Animal Feed Science and Technology.
The Pleasure of Their Company". Nutrient requirements of cats. Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. National Research Council - National Academies. The Journal of Nutrition. Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat 2 ed.
New Zealand Veterinary Journal. Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care. Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology 7 ed. Annual Review of Nutrition.
Effects of serum vitamin E levels on skin vitamin E levels in dogs and cats. Journal of veterinary internal medicine. Despite their popularity in other countries, plantains are not as common in the U. One cup raw plantain has roughly in recommended daily values 1 , 2: One cup of cooked, mashed plantains has:. Plantains are a solid source of carbohydrates with a low fat content, but they also provide a number of other health benefits as well.
There are milligrams of potassium in one cup of cooked, mashed plantains. That accounts for about 20 percent of your recommended daily amount of potassium, making plantains one of the most potassium-rich foods on the planet.
Potassium is the third-most abundant mineral in the body, but when depleted, low potassium can affect the function of a number of organs and processes. Potassium is an electrolyte and is affected greatly by the amount of sodium in the body. Potassium plays a major role in regulating blood pressure because it combats the effects of sodium. Snacking on plantains or adding them as a side dish are delicious ways to reach your daily potassium goals and help naturally remedy high blood pressure.
Potassium levels also affect skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, which allows for regular digestive and muscular function. It also helps regulate heart rhythm, and studies show that people who consume diets with high potassium levels tend to be at a lower risk of stroke, osteoporosis and renal disease. Fiber has a profound effect on the digestive system and plays a significant role in keeping it regular. As a high-fiber food , plantains add bulk to food intake, which aids digestion.
Fiber also make you feel full, which can help with weight control. Thus, increasing intake of dietary fiber can also help enhance weight loss in obese individuals. Soluble fiber is also known to help lower cholesterol and blood pressure, which prevents heart disease 6. Free radicals, which are made when your body breaks down food or when you are exposed to other harmful elements like tobacco smoke or radiation, play a part in aging, diseases and cancer.
Vitamin C is one of the most powerful vitamins, as it has a hand in growing and repairing tissues all over the body. Looking to boost your immune system? Then plantains are the perfect snack. They pack 36 percent of your daily recommended amount of vitamin A. As another powerful antioxidant, vitamin A provides a number of benefits to the body. Vitamin A also has a large part in skin health and cell growth, and is a necessary element for wound healing.
Cells that overreact to certain foods are the root of food allergies and ultimately cause inflammation. Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, generates several important neurotransmitters that carry information from one cell to another.
A serving of plantains can provide up to 24 percent of your daily amount needed of vitamin B6. Homocysteine levels an amino acid linked to heart disease and nervous system damage are also controlled by vitamin B6.
The vitamin keeps levels low to help prevent damage and maintain the health of blood vessels. Similar to vitamin A, B6 also helps slow the onset of eye diseases like macular degeneration.
Magnesium deficiency is a very common problem thanks to Western diets and depleted soil due to overfarming.