Florida portal Companies portal Food portal Drink portal. My body is out of proportion. In , Donald N. Or, rather, blended oats, as they are essentially the same, right? Some links may earn us advertising or sponsor fees; see our Affiliate Disclosure. Stores in New England resurrected the veal Parmigiana sandwich Internationally, the salads vary in composition and style from market to market.
Un rapport des Nations unies insiste sur l'impact de la convergence des TIC: Par exemple France Telecom est devenue également un distributeur de chaînes de télévision et de musique. Dans les années et 90, les réseaux étaient spécialisés par domaine et il fallait différents systèmes de transmission et parfois différentes infrastructures pour la téléphonie, la transmission de données entre ordinateurs, la radio et la télévision.
Maintenant les réseaux en technologie IP à haut débit sont communs pour toutes les formes de service et les octets de la téléphonie sont acheminés par les mêmes routeurs sur les mêmes artères que les octets des consultations des sites Internet, des transferts de fichiers, du streaming de vidéos ou du courrier électronique [ 26 ] , [ 27 ].
Dans les années , un ordinateur servait essentiellement au traitement de texte et au calcul avec un tableur. Puis dans les années il a servi aussi au courrier électronique et aux présentations par diapositives. Un ordinateur était donc clairement un équipement informatique.
La convergence numérique est particulièrement illustrée par les nouveaux terminaux téléphoniques appelés smartphones. Ils contiennent plus de capacité en mémoire et de puissance de calcul que les ordinateurs personnels des années et même Ils permettent de prendre des photos et des vidéos avec des performances équivalentes à de bons appareils de photos ou caméscopes des années Ils sont utilisés comme des baladeurs pour écouter de la musique enregistrée ou voir des images ou des vidéos enregistrées.
Apple développe aussi sa propre suite bureautique iWork, en concurrence directe avec Microsoft Office. Les services de l'information et de la communication sont regroupés en différentes catégories dont les plus connues sont:. Selon un rapport Votre cloud est-il Net? En , en France, une charte a engagé les opérateurs développer le réseau tout en économisant l'électricité, et améliorer la récupération et le recyclage des matériels informatiques [ 40 ]. De à , les unités centrales desktop vendues ont légèrement diminué leur consommation d'énergie, de même que les écrans, alors que la consommation des portables augmentaient légèrement [ 41 ].
L' empreinte environnementale des TIC est très importante, puisqu'elles nécessitent pour leur fabrication une très grande quantité de matériaux, en particulier de métaux. Le nombre de métaux de la table de Mendeleïev sollicités pat la fabrication des TIC est ainsi passé de 10 dans les années à 60 dans les années Pendant cette période, la demande de l'industrie des TIC en métaux a triplé.
Le PNUE a publié en la composition d'un ordinateur personnel fixe, et l'Öko Institute a fait une étude équivalente en pour les ordinateurs portables [ 42 ].
Le développement des activités tertiaires au détriment des activités primaires et secondaires dans les pays industrialisés a augmenté les besoins de traitement de l'information et de communication des entreprises [ 43 ].
De nombreuses petites et moyennes entreprises PME ont participé à cette étude [ 45 ]. Croissance, emplois et productivité dans le secteur tertiaire: L'augmentation du niveau d'éducation a favorisé l'utilisation d' ordinateurs personnels et de logiciels plus ou moins complexes par un pourcentage croissant de la population [ 47 ]. Les collectivités locales investissent dans la formation sur les TIC pour améliorer la compétitivité des entreprises de leurs territoires [ 48 ].
Les mêmes outils de TIC sont utilisés aussi bien dans le domaine professionnel que dans le domaine privé, ce qui entraîne à la fois un brouillage de la frontière entre ces deux domaines et une stimulation pour se doter de ces outils de TIC [ 49 ] , [ 50 ] , [ 51 ].
La distribution des dépenses par les ménages a sensiblement évolué avec une part croissante de dépenses pour les TIC, même dans les milieux populaires, avec en conséquence une réduction d'autres types de dépenses par exemple, réduction d'achats de journaux , de magazines , de CD Ce phénomène a été analysé par l'agence Aravis [ 53 ] à partir des statistiques sur les dépenses des ménages. Les résultats montrent que [ 54 ]: Les terminaux des TIC à haut débit ordinateurs personnels et téléphones 3G sont de plus en plus utilisés pour la radio et la télévision en lieu et place des terminaux traditionnels spécifiques à chaque catégorie d' audiovisuel.
La possibilité de voir des émissions de télévision en mode différé catch-up TV ou replay et d'écouter des émissions de radio en mode différé par le téléchargement podcast augmente considérablement la gamme de ce qu'on peut voir ou entendre. En particulier, les jeunes de 14 à 24 ans veulent pouvoir consommer leurs émissions préférées n'importe quand, n'importe où et sur n'importe quel écran [ 57 ].
Le streaming est de plus en plus utilisé, ce qui fait reculer le téléchargement illégal [ 58 ]. Des projets sont réalisés pour utiliser les TIC pour lutter contre l'isolement des séniors, par exemple le projet Monalisa [ 59 ]. La possibilité d'intervenir en temps réel dans les débats et forums apporte un nouveau degré de participation des consommateurs. Grâce au web 2. La rapide augmentation de la capacité des processeurs loi de Moore et la rapide augmentation de la capacité des artères de transmission avec la généralisation des fibres optiques ont entraîné une chute des coûts unitaires des services de communications et surtout une généralisation progressive des systèmes d' accès à Internet à haut débit.
La numérisation de toutes les informations de toute nature: Cette caractéristique est d'autant plus importante que ces infrastructures sont caractérisées par des coûts fixes élevés et des coûts marginaux faibles. Cela a entraîné un profond bouleversement des modèles économiques des opérateurs de télécommunications. En quinze ans, le marché des TIC a été bouleversé, d'abord avec l'essor phénoménal de la téléphonie mobile et de l'Internet fixe à haut débit, puis récemment avec l'Internet mobile à haut débit, ce qui caractérise l'étape majeure de la convergence des technologies du traitement de l'information et de la communication.
L'évolution des coûts des systèmes des TIC et le développement de la concurrence avec l'émergence nouveaux fournisseurs de service ont favorisé l'essor spectaculaire des offres commerciales des services de l'information et de la communication.
Cet essor est caractérisé par des bouquets de service avec des tarifs forfaitaires abordables incluant généralement des appels téléphoniques illimités, un accès à l'Internet à haut débit et un accès à des chaînes de télévision [ 61 ]. Types of Whey Protein There are a variety of different types of whey, and they are differentiated by the way they are processed: This is a great option for those who are lactose-intolerant Whey Protein Hydrolysate hydrolyzed whey This form of way has been pre-digested broken down to enhance absorption rates by the body and promote a greater insulin spike.
What to look for? What to watch out for? Showing product reviews from: All Time Last 12 Months Switch to Desktop Version. All trademarks are property of their respective owners. Some links may earn us advertising or sponsor fees; see our Affiliate Disclosure. Impact Whey Isolate MyProtein. Whey Protein Isolate NutraBio.
Impact Whey Protein MyProtein. Platinum Hydro Whey Optimum. New Zealand Whey Protein Dioxyme. Elite Whey Dymatize Nutrition. Java Whey Protein NutraBio. Whey Protein Isolate Six Star. Spartan Whey Sparta Nutrition. Premier Whey Protein Premier Nutrition. Hydrolysed Whey Protein MyProtein. Hydro Matrix 4D Nutrition. Alpha Isolate Modern Man Nutrition. Whey Build Fuel One. They were sold in the United States at one time, but are now sold only in the European market.
Although Wendy's was the first to have a value menu in , Burger King decided to offer its own value menu in In and , BK revamped its value menu by adding and removing several products such as chili and the Rodeo Cheeseburger. Returning to the practice of targeting the adult demographic as it had in , BK introduced several new products to its menu in The new products included new or revamped chicken sandwiches, a new salad line, and its BK Joe brand of coffee.
The sandwich was part of then-CEO Greg Brenneman 's plans to bolster the company's revived "Have it your way" advertising program, which was designed to draw younger people to its stores. The Chef's Choice Burger was removed in Ultimate Cheeseburger in North America. The Burger Bundles returned in with beef and chicken patty options.
The improved fries were coated with a layer of potato-based starch , giving the fries a crisp shell that maintained its texture longer. The company introduced them in a series of advertisements that claimed the new fries tasted better than McDonald's fries in consumer taste comparisons. Other ads featured Mr. Potato Head in a series of demographically-targeted commercials. In , the company introduced Twister fries, spiral-cut fries with a spicy coating, as part of a promotional push.
Part of the product's appeal was they were served in a paper drink cup as opposed to the normal fry carton. The product was designed as a short-term promotion that would be periodically reintroduced. In , Burger King offered "Shake 'em up Fries", which included a bag of fries and a packet of spices. The customer would add the spices to the fries and then shake the bag until the fries were coated.
Beyond French fries, the company has introduced several other side products over the course of its existence. Onion rings have been part of the menu for the majority of BK history. Originally made from whole, sliced onions, they were reformulated into a formed product made from onion paste in as part of a menu revamp. The same menu added mozzarella sticks with a side of marinara sauce ; the mozzarella sticks have since been relegated to a regional menu item in the United States, but are sold on the national menu in Canada.
One of Smith's significant contributions to the menu was the addition of a breakfast product line as part of the product line expansion. Up until that point, breakfast was not a market Burger King had served. Express product line, which included French toast sticks and mini-muffins.
The new product was designed to drive sales in the morning by piquing customer's curiosity with a new taste. The product was tested for several months in BK's original home territory of Miami before a national roll-out.
In the late s, BK co-branded several of its breakfast products with former parent Pillsbury; Pillsbury produced a fresh-baked biscuit product for the chain in and miniature cinnamon rolls called Cini-Minis in As part of the cachet built into the products, Burger King advertises that products are cooked fresh in the restaurant each morning. With the effects of the lates recession reducing breakfast traffic to the stores, Burger King announced that it was making the first wholesale changes to its breakfast line-up in many years.
Chief Marketing Officer Mike Kappitt said breakfast produced 12 percent of the company's income, but that was only half of what McDonald's made. Part of the expansion was a major advertising campaign that encouraged people to change their minds about skipping breakfast at a time of high unemployment.
Oatmeal has been shown to be a popular addition to breakfast menus industry-wide due to its low cost, ease in preparation and perception as a healthy, whole-grain option. Analysts from industry analytic firm Technomic stated that it was a good move for Burger King to add a winning product to its menu, but that it should have tried to be more creative by adding other, similar products such as grits.
In countries with predominantly Islamic populations, such as Saudi Arabia , pork is not served due to Muslim dietary laws. In Muslim countries, meat is slaughtered using the halal method and labeled as such. Before the company exited the country in ,  many of its locations in Israel were fully kosher. In many international markets, BK offers products or condiments that fit local tastes.
For example, in Canada, BK offers poutine gravy and vinegar for its French fries, and peri-peri sauce is available as a sandwich topping in the United Kingdom. In the United States, BK offers several desserts, including Otis Spunkmeyer chocolate-chip cookies, apple pie slices, Hershey's Sundae pie slices a type of chocolate creme pie , and a rotating pie as part of its dessert menu. In most markets where BK sells ice cream, it also sells a mix-in dessert under various names.
Burger King cooks its foods in one of four ways: As noted in its mottos and advertisements, BK cooks its burgers and grilled chicken on an automated grill,  while its other chicken products, fish, sides, and breakfast sausage are deep-fried in vegetable oil.
The Insta-Broiler cooked the burgers in a wire basket between two broilers, allowing the burgers to be cooked on both sides simultaneously. The machine was capable of cooking over patties per hour, which allowed the company to grow rapidly.
When McLamore and Edgarton opened their first Insta-Burger King location in Miami, they revamped the unit into what they called a "flame broiler" — the forerunner of the modern unit used by Burger King today.
When the time came for the company to develop a new broiler, it turned to its equipment manufacturer, Nieco, and St. Louis, Missouri -based Duke Manufacturing.
Burger King's goal was to maintain the company's trademark flame broiling method while allowing more product options on a flexible cooking platform. The solutions that Nieco and Duke devised met that goal by using control features during cooking.
The cooking methods employed by the two manufacturing companies vary in their methods; Nieco employed two chains, one that maintained a single speed and cooking temperature, and another that had a flexible speed setting and variable temperature control. Duke's solution utilizes an oven that cooks according to preset parameters for time and temperature, one heterogeneous product batch at a time.
Beyond the flexibility of the new broilers, the new equipment has several features intended to decrease operational costs. A more efficient design of the burners in the Nieco units produces a 30 percent reduction in energy consumption. The units are so fuel-efficient that in many US states, the company and its franchises qualify for energy-efficiency rebates. In multiple incidents in seven counties throughout the state, the Duke units were found to have cracked heat spreaders which resulted in under cooked products.
Additionally, there was foreign material contamination caused by loose insulation resulting from the cracks as well as other issues. Additional training for operators was also ordered. Before any products are sold, the company pre-cooks the ingredients and holds them in a heated holding cabinet. To ensure that product consistency is maintained and to reduce the amount of products discarded as waste, Burger King utilizes a computerized monitoring system created by Integrated Control Corp , or ICC.
The system, called Kitchen Minder, monitors time and temperature in the cabinets and notifies staff and managers when to prepare more food and discard older products. Initially developed from to , the system is designed to work with a holding cabinet system that was developed by Duke.
The initial test designs were time-consuming to program because each bay in the holding units had to be programmed manually. This meant several minutes were required for each product, which added up to several hours to program up to six units with eight bays each.
When BK finally deployed the system in ,  the updated units utilized a Palm Pilot to configure the units using a custom program designed to easily configure the units via Infrared or serial port. During periods of high-volume sales, BK will pre-prepare high-demand items such as hamburgers and cheeseburgers; during slower periods all sandwiches are made to order. The Whopper sandwiches, premium sandwiches, and BK Veggies are all made when ordered.
As with all major fast food vendors, BK has a menu that specifically targets children. The company introduced its child-oriented product line in North America during the summer of with an advertising program called the Burger King Kid's Club.
The toy is usually a product tie-in with a movie or popular television show. The entrée and side offerings differ from market to market, as does portion size. In the North American market, BK further divides its children's menu into three segments: The only difference between the first two groups is the prize offering; the toddler will receive an age-appropriate toy. The toys were originally designed by Kentwood, Michigan -based Sassy Inc.
The tween offering, introduced in , is called the Big Kids Meal. Further additions to the line included a six-piece serving of the company's Chicken Fries product.
The introduction of the Big Kids Meal was not without controversy. McDonald's challenged Burger King's use of the name in a federal suit that claimed McDonald's had used the name first.
To appeal to the adult market, BK offers several sandwiches and other products made with higher-quality ingredients such as whole-breast chicken fillets , Angus beef , and other "premium" ingredients.
Through and , the company added other higher-end product such as barbecued ribs, grilled fish, an improved grilled chicken sandwich, kebabs, and an extra-thick burger called the Steakhouse XT.
The "indulgent" products are seen as blurring the lines between the fast-food and casual-dining market segments and, while they draw in newer customers looking for value, the effect may only be temporary. Once the economic instabilities of the lates recession fade, customers may return to such casual chains as Chili's and leave the fast food chains back where they started in terms of customer numbers and profits.
BK targets specific sub-groups within the adult market. Products like the BK Stacker and BK XXL are aimed at late teen to young adult males; health-conscious individuals are offered products such as salads, grilled chicken, and veggie burgers.
The meal was launched with a cross-promotion in conjunction with Nickelodeon's SpongeBob SquarePants. The series of commercials raised the ire of the American Family Association due to perceived nudity concerns. One particular market target that was of importance to the company was identified as the "Superfan".
The superfan was a demographic group that included individuals that are 18 to 49 years old, primarily male, who would visit a fast-food restaurant five times a month and eat fast food 16 times a month.
By focusing on this demographic group, the company could increase sales more readily; it was easier to generate more repeat visits by this demographic than it was to coax new customers to switch from other chains.
The company has used advertising featuring its mascot, the Burger King, in tandem with new product rollouts such as its BK Wrapper product to help generate an increased number of visits by this client segment.
With the slowing of the global economy due to the financial crisis of , the company experienced a downside of focusing so much on this demographic group. The high unemployment of the recession, coupled with healthier eating habits, drove many customers away from fast food towards the fast-casual segment or forced them to stop eating out. Analysts have stated that by focusing its marketing and advertising programs on men, BK alienated women and children.
Morgan Stanley analyst John Glass stated, "Maybe catering to the super fan was the correct strategy to kick-start the business, but maybe they relied on that for too long To help counter the perceived male bias of its superfan target group, the company expanded the definition in early to cover individuals of both sexes, all ages, and households who frequent fast food within the stated time frame. Throughout , the company added newer calorie-conscious "Positive Steps" combo meals that were advertised in female-oriented media, as well as a continuing cross-promotional tie-in with the female-oriented Twilight film series.
One of the company's first forays into healthier products was in with introduction of its salad bar. The salad bar met with light to moderate success, but the company's franchise holders complained of high operating costs and a poor return on investment.
They are sold with two toppings and Ken's Foods Ken's Steakhouse brand salad dressing. Internationally, the salads vary in composition and style from market to market. In all markets, salads are one of the items targeted at female and health-conscious consumers. As a response to recent obesity trends in the United States and other nations, Burger King modified its menu and food preparation practices. In addition to offering lower-fat menu item such as salads, the company has updated its nutrition guides to include dietary guidelines and other nutritional data.
One of its reactions to the concerns over trans-fats was to initiate a program in January to phase out added trans-fat in its products, and to switch to pure vegetable oils that are free of hydrogenated fats. Most, but not all, of the products contain no added trans-fats; some products, such as the beef used in the hamburgers, still contain naturally occurring trans-fats. To address concerns over the increase in childhood obesity in Western nations and accusations of unhealthy offerings for children by groups such as the Center for Science in the Public Interest ,  the company created a nutritional program called "BK Positive Steps" that is aimed at children and their families.
The product line has been expanded to include a boiled mini chicken sandwich for the kid's meals in this region. The company has adapted its menu to accommodate different dietary lifestyles by adding several vegetarian options, including salads, the BK Veggie sandwich, and its deep-fried spicy bean burger that is sold in Burger King's international locations. Society guidelines do not require their approved products to be vegan, and allow ovo-lacto-vegetarian ingredients.
In January , BK began to publish a list of which of their products that contain gluten and added menu options designed to help those afflicted with Celiac disease as part of its "Positive Steps" nutrition program. A company representative stated that it understands that its guests have individual dietary needs, and as part of its "Have It Your Way" promise, Burger King offers menu items for individuals with gluten sensitivity. The range of products sold usually depends on the time of day.
Lunch items such as hamburgers and fries are traditionally not served during breakfast time. However, some BK stores do sell food under their "Burgers for Breakfast" program. Burger King's product packaging has undergone many changes over the years.
Unlike McDonald's, the company never used the clamshell style box made of Styrofoam , so when the environmental concerns over Styrofoam came to a head in the late s, the company touted its use of paperboard boxes for its sandwiches. Each product's packaging included a tongue-in-cheek commentary about the product itself.
All of its sandwich wrappers, cartons, tray liners, bags, breakfast platters, chili cups, condiments, and regional product packaging received what was described as "quirky ad copy" specifically targeting the 18—year-old male demographic segment. Besides the humorous commentary, the company also created sniglet -type names for things that would appear in its products, such as a "ringer" — a single onion ring that had been accidentally included in an order of fries.
Starting with the introduction of its BK Chicken Fries product in , BK began adapting some of its product packaging so that it could be placed in an automotive cup holder. The BK Chicken Fry box, while square in shape, will sit comfortably in the cup holder and its top, when opened, forms a small tray that is designed to hold dipping sauce. Burger King credits the design of this box with helping to make its Chicken Fries the most popular adult-oriented chicken product in the United States.
Union Packaging, a minority-owned, Philadelphia-based paper products company, has supplied much of the packaging for Burger King's North American operations since winning its first contract in Over time, the company reformulates various products in an attempt to boost sales of the product or to improve the taste, appearance, or physical consistency of the product. Burger King's original fish sandwich, introduced as early as the late s in some markets, was called the Whaler; it was a smaller fish sandwich made with tartar sauce and lettuce served on the small sesame seed roll BK used for their hamburgers.
When Burger King introduced its broiled chicken sandwich in , the BK Broiler , it changed the fish sandwich's breading to a panko style, began serving it on an oatmeal-dusted roll that was used for the broiled chicken sandwich, and renamed the product the Ocean Catch sandwich. One of the company's larger product reformulations came in March The new formulation was described by the company as being " more broadly appealing " to the palate of its customers according to statement released by the company.
Nation's Restaurant News analyst John Barone stated that the change may also be due to an industry wide move to chicken-based product as a result of raising commodity prices, forcing restaurants to turn towards chicken-based offerings due to the elevated pork and beef prices occurring during the previous year.
He added that chicken breast costs have been down or flat during the same period, making it a more appealing choice to companies. The new product push was accompanied with a product tie-in with the movie Hop aimed at the youth market, an adult-oriented advertising campaign pushing convenience and product customization and a nationwide coupon mailing in the United States. Online advertising was emphasized with the release a Facebook gaming application it called the "Tender 8".
To generate additional sales, BK will occasionally introduce limited time offers LTO that are versions of its core products or new products intended for either long- or short-term sales. Many of these LTO products focus on core menu products such as the Whopper, which has featured variations such as the Texas Double Whopper with added jalapeños , bacon, and pepperjack cheese.
Other LTOs include all-new sandwiches like the Chick'n Crisp sandwich now a permanent item in many regions and test products such as the company's Great American Burger, which was an attempt at a premium sandwich in It was made with a Whopper patty and several new ingredients, including a bakery-style bun; peppered bacon; whole-leaf, as opposed to shredded, lettuce; seasoned mustard; and a special sauce.
The burger was served with American cheese, mayonnaise, tomato, and onions. It was designed to be cooked on a forerunner of the current batch broiler. Other LTO products sought to expand existing product lines with new base ingredients. The company's offering, a Meatloaf Specialty Sandwich , was introduced as part of a push into limited table service. Steak sandwiches were made from steak fillets or later, restructured beef. Other offerings were a ham and cheese sandwich with mayonnaise, lettuce, and tomato, and a veal parmigiana sandwich.
The company is not above following trends within the fast food and fast casual industry; two of examples of this can be seen in some of its former products. The introduction of BK Burger Shots , Burger King's version of sliders , was part of a wider trend in the restaurant industry for this type of sandwich. The variation sold in the UK and Ireland is called the Angus 6 Pack; it is six small burgers that are attached together.
In , Burger King began licensing its logo and items to outside companies for non-Burger King products. A licensed products company, Broad Street Licensing Group, and its manufacturing partner, the Inventure Group, introduced the first products in the fall of that year: Inventure added a third flavor, onion rings, in Industry pundits have criticized the company for this scheme, with Rob Frankel, author of the book The Revenge of Brand X , stating "just because you can do something does not mean you should.
The licensing deals have proven successful. Broad Street has expanded the product line to seventeen countries across the globe while increasing selection to more than a half dozen products designed to mimic the flavors of some of Burger King's core menu products.
The success of the product line and licensing deals garnered the companies an award for "Brand Extension of the Year" from License! ConAgra Foods entered into a licensing agreement with Burger King in for a new line of microwavable French fry products. The new products are King Krinkz, which are seasoned crinkle-cut fries; King Kolossalz, an extra-large package of fries; and King Wedgez, seasoned potato wedges.
The products were slated to be released in September The packaging is designed to resemble BK's FryPod fry container. Burger King has introduced several new products that performed well in testing, but did not catch on with the public. The failure of the BK Baguette line of sandwiches is an example a product that did not meet corporate expectations; another earlier failure was the Bull's-eye Barbecue Burger.
The sandwich consisted of two side-by-side hamburger patties, American cheese, and bacon, with Bull's-eye Barbecue brand barbecue sauce. Later it was sold as a traditional-style double cheeseburger.